The Duquenois–Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives. Despite this, it is common in the United States for prosecutors to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D–L tests, claiming them to be conclusive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography confirmation, which can only be done in the lab. In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine. However, a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine refute the possibility of self-administered zinc producing false-negative urine drug tests.
In 2015, almost half of the people in the United States had tried marijuana, 12% had used it in the past year, and 7.3% had used it in the past month. In 2014, daily marijuana use amongst US college students had reached its highest level since records began in 1980, rising from 3.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2014 and had surpassed daily cigarette use.
^ Morales P, Hurst DP, Reggio PH (2017). Kinghorn AD, Falk H, Gibbons S, Kobayashi J, eds. "Molecular Targets of the Phytocannabinoids: A Complex Picture". Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Springer International Publishing. 103: 103–131. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-45541-9_4. ISBN 978-3-319-45539-6. PMC 5345356. PMID 28120232.
The price of the 500mg bottle of Hempworx CBD oil is $69 plus shipping. That’s $0.14 per milligram of CBD before shipping cost. The 750mg bottle is $89 plus shipping or $0.12 per milligram of CBD. By MLM standards, that price per milligram is not outrageous. But it’s still significantly higher in price than comparable CBD oil products from reputable companies like Lazarus Naturals, cbdMD, CBDistillery and others. Click here to compare the price of Hempworx to our recommended CBD oil brands.
According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.
Multiple sclerosis (MS). A prescription-only nasal spray product (Sativex, GW Pharmaceuticals) containing both 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol has been shown to be effective for improving pain, muscle-tightness, and urination frequency in people with MS. This product is used in over 25 countries outside of the United States. But there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of cannabidiol for symptoms of multiple sclerosis when it is used alone. Some early research suggests that using a cannabidiol spray under the tongue might improve pain and muscle tightness, but not muscle spasms, tiredness, bladder control, mobility, or well-being and quality of life in patients with MS.
CBD(Cannabidiol) is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “high”. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive (as opposed to a THC dominant strain) makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and many other conditions without feelings of lethargy or dysphoria. Hemp Worx 750 is CBD dominant oil!
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The above uses are based on hemp as a mechanical strengthener of materials. Hemp can also be chemically combined with materials. For example, hemp with gypsum and binding agents may produce light panels that might compete with drywall. Hemp and lime mixtures make a high quality plaster. Hemp hurds are rich in silica (which occurs naturally in sand and flint), and the hurds mixed with lime undergo mineralization, to produce a stone-like material. The technology is most advanced in France (Fig. 26). The mineralized material can be blown or poured into the cavities of walls and in attics as insulation. The foundations, walls, floors, and ceilings of houses have been made using hemp hurds mixed with natural lime and water. Sometimes plaster of Paris (pure gypsum), cement, or sand is added. The resulting material can be poured like concrete, but has a texture vaguely reminiscent of cork—much lighter than cement, and with better heat and sound-insulating properties. An experimental “ceramic tile” made of hemp has recently been produced (Fig. 27).
Dehulled (i.e. hulled) hemp seed is a very recent phenomenon, first produced in quantity in Europe. Hemp seeds have been used as food since ancient times, but generally the whole seed, including the hull, was eaten. Hemp seed was a grain used in ancient China, although there has been only minor direct use of hemp seed as food by humans. In the past, hemp seed has generally been a food of the lower classes, or a famine food. Peanut-butter type preparations have been produced from hemp seed in Europe for centuries, but were rather gritty since technology for removing the hulls was rudimentary. Modern seed dehulling using mechanical separation produces a smooth, white, gritless hemp seed meal that needs no additional treatment before it is consumed. It is important to understand, therefore, that the quality of modern hemp seed for human consumption far exceeds anything produced historically. This seed meal should be distinguished from the protein-rich, oil-poor seed cake remaining after oil has been expressed, that is used for livestock feed. The seed cake is also referred to as “seed meal,” and has proven to be excellent for animals (Mustafa et al. 1999).
First off, hemp seed oil is oil extracted from hemp seeds. It contains very little CBD and is not commonly used as a source for CBD since the rest of the plant contains much more CBD. The claim to have a ‘full spectrum CBD’ is very strange wording. CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is a single chemical, a single cannabinoid, so it cannot be ‘full spectrum’ because it contains no other ingredients. This could be merely bad writing, or could indicate attempt to confound either consumers, or more likely sellers. The ingredients listed say hemp seed oil, CBD rich whole hemp extract, and flavoring. There’s no list of just ‘CBD’ alone. However, on the certificate of analysis provided by the organization, the percent of CBD comes out correct. From this we conclude that the ‘phytocannabinoid extract’ is indeed all of the cannabinoids together, but that more than 160% of that is comprised of CBD. Therefore, we can fairly well trust that this product does in fact contain the stated level of CBD, despite the confusing wording.
There are two possible exceptions to this. The first is that some people, for unknown reasons, just react differently to CBD. According to Dr. Chin, about 5% of people say they feel altered after taking CBD. "Usually they're the same people who have side effects from Advil or Tylenol," she says. You never know how your body will react to any new supplement, so when taking CBD for the first time, do so safely under supervision.
High-CBD strains tend to deliver very clear-headed, functional effects without the euphoric high associated with high-THC strains. They’re typically preferred by consumers who are extremely sensitive to the side effects of THC (e.g., anxiety, paranoia, dizziness). A high-CBD strain would also be a great choice for someone needing to medicate throughout the day to control pain, inflammation, anxiety, or other chronic conditions.
Smaller companies focused on CBD beverages, such as New Age Beverages Corp. NBEV, -0.73% , have been targeted by investors, but some firms have used CBD-related announcements to pump stock prices as well as fuel excitement in a compound that scientists do not fully understand. Other companies operating in the sector will benefit too: Charlotte’s Web Holdings Inc. CWBHF, +2.07% has focused on a range of CBD products, capturing about 17% market share in 2017 with sales in 3,000 retail locations, according to PI Financial research.
Despite the fact that Cannabis was grown on a large scale in many countries, the abuse as a narcotic remained uncommon in Western countries until relatively recently. People were largely unaware of the psychoactive properties of Cannabis and it is unlikely that early cultivars, selected mainly for their seed or fiber qualities, contained significant amounts of the psychoactive THC. The medicinal use of Cannabis was introduced in Europe only around 1840, by a young Irish doctor, William O’Shaughnessy, who served for the East India Trading Company in India, where the medicinal use of Cannabis was widespread. Unlike the European fiber Cannabis, these Indian varieties did contain a reasonable amount of bioactive cannabinoids. In the following decades, the medicinal use of Cannabis saw a short period of popularity both in Europe and in the United States. At the top of its popularity, more than 28 different medicinal preparations were available with Cannabis as active ingredient, which were recommended for indications as various as menstrual cramps, asthma, cough, insomnia, support of birth labor, migraine, throat infection, and withdrawal from opium use.27
Ringo’s Gift: This cultivar is named after the cannabidiol pioneer, Lawrence Ringo. Ringo’s Gift is a cross between two other CBD-rich strains, AC/DC and Harle-tsu. Its CBD to THC ratio varies from 1:1 to 22:1, but it consistently favors CBD. Ringo’s Gift smells of earthy pine and promises full-bodied relaxation in tandem with calming cerebral effects which, together, silence pain and anxiety.
Cannabis most likely originates from Central Asia, as archeological evidence indicates that it was already cultivated in China for food and fiber 10 000 years ago. Even in ancient Egyptian mummies, clues have been found for the use of Cannabis as food or medicine.25 In fact, Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants and is described in almost every ancient handbook on plant medicine, most commonly in the form of a tincture or a tea.26,27 Some religions were closely related with the properties of the Cannabis plant. For example, in Hindu legend, Cannabis is believed to be the favorite food of the god Shiva, because of its energizing properties. As Cannabis spread from Asia toward the West, almost every culture came into contact with this miracle plant. Nowadays, varieties of Cannabis can be found in all temperate and tropical zones, except in humid, tropical rain forests.28
Furthermore, medical cannabis use is legal in many more places than recreational marijuana use. Current research, alongside patient and caregiver testimony, attests to the many medicinal applications of marijuana. From pain to serious neurological diseases, medical cannabis is emerging as a safe and viable alternative to many common prescription medications.
A 2015 meta analysis found that, although a longer period of abstinence was associated with smaller magnitudes of impairment, both retrospective and prospective memory were impaired in cannabis users. The authors concluded that some, but not all, of the deficits associated with cannabis use were reversible. A 2012 meta analyses found that deficits in most domains of cognition persisted beyond the acute period of intoxication, but was not evident in studies where subjects were abstinent for more than 25 days. Few high quality studies have been performed on the long-term effects of cannabis on cognition, and results were generally inconsistent. Furthermore, effect sizes of significant findings were generally small. One review concluded that, although most cognitive faculties were unimpaired by cannabis use, residual deficits occurred in executive functions. Impairments in executive functioning are most consistently found in older populations, which may reflect heavier cannabis exposure, or developmental effects associated with adolescent cannabis use. One review found three prospective cohort studies that examined the relationship between self reported cannabis use and intelligence quotient (IQ). The study following the largest number of heavy cannabis users reported that IQ declined between ages 7–13 and age 38. Poorer school performance and increased incidence of leaving school early were both associated with cannabis use, although a causal relationship was not established. Cannabis users demonstrated increased activity in task-related brain regions, consistent with reduced processing efficiency.
Hempworx products are made from Hemp, the non-THC cousin of marijuana. The reason I have always purchased my CBD oil from Hempworx is that they are the only manufacturer I know of that uses certified, organic, non GMO, hemp, grown by FDA compliant hemp farmers in Colorado and Kentucky. That’s a big deal. There are not many FDA compliant farms growing hemp. Hempworx products are also grown as part of the Hemp Pilot Program that helps farmers that have converted to growing cannabis.
As of November 2016, 33 states and the District of Columbia legally allow cannabis for personal medical use. Rules surrounding the use of medical cannabis (medical marijuana) vary by state. The first state in the union to legalize the medical use of marijuana was California in 1996. States that allow medical marijuana include: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and the District of Columbia. It is important to recognize that these state marijuana laws do not change the fact that using marijuana continues to be an offense under Federal law.
Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis. In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa. Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.
^ Jump up to: a b c Devinsky, Orrin; Cilio, Maria Roberta; Cross, Helen; Fernandez-Ruiz, Javier; French, Jacqueline; Hill, Charlotte; Katz, Russell; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Jutras-Aswad, Didier; Notcutt, William George; Martinez-Orgado, Jose; Robson, Philip J.; Rohrback, Brian G.; Thiele, Elizabeth; Whalley, Benjamin; Friedman, Daniel (22 May 2014). "Cannabidiol: Pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders". Epilepsia. 55 (6): 791–802. doi:10.1111/epi.12631. PMC 4707667. PMID 24854329.
3. Is the CBD oil sold by Hempworx a bad product? No. To their credit, Hempworx does post third party lab reports posted on its website. Third party lab reports are the only way to really know what’s in the product you are buying. The Hempworx lab reports clearly show the amount of CBD and other cannabinoids including trace amounts of THC in the Hempworx CBD oil tincture. By all accounts, Hempworx CBD oil is of reasonably good quality. However, it’s worth noting that their posted lab reports do not show results of heavy metal, pesticide and residual solvents testing. The omission of these test results is concerning.
During this time, both the FDA announced that it had approved the “first drug containing cannabidiol” for epilepsy and a spokeswoman for the DEA, commenting generally on the agency’s reported seizure of hemp destined for a CBD oil manufacturer in North Carolina, said that “as far as the federal government is concerned, CBD oil is illegal.” That’s two federal agencies that both have the word “drug” in their names appearing to contradict each other, mere weeks apart. So suffice to say, it’s cloudier than a Cheech and Chong cast party right now.
Harvesting tall varieties for grain is difficult. In France, the principal grower of dual-purpose varieties, the grain is taken off the field first, leaving most of the stalks for later harvest (Fig. 49). Putting tall whole plants through a conventional combine results in the straw winding around moving parts, and the fibers working into bearings, causing breakdown, fires, high maintenance, and frustration. Following the French example of raising the cutting blade to harvest the grain is advisable. Growing short varieties dedicated to grain production eliminates many of the above problems, and since the profitability of hemp straw is limited at present, seems preferable. Grain growers should be aware that flocks of voracious birds are a considerable source of damage to hempseed, particularly in small plantations.
Although always sold at a premium price, hemp clothing has a natural appeal to a sector of the population. Hemp clothes are resistant to abrasion, but are typically abrasive. However, appropriate processing and blending with other natural fibers has significantly improved the “feel” of the product, and in China hemp textiles indistinguishable from fine linens in texture are available. Weaving of hemp fibers into textiles and apparel is primarily done in China, Hungary, Romania, Russia, and the Ukraine. Processing costs are higher for industrial hemp because the fibers vary from the standard specifications for fiber length and diameter established for the equipment used in most textile and apparel factories, necessitating the use of specialty machines. The North American hemp apparel industry today is based on fiber, yarn, and fabrics imported from Eastern Europe and China. The extraction technology and spinning facilities, to say nothing of much lower labor costs, make it very difficult for the potential development of a hemp textile industry in North America. The fact that spinning facilities for natural fibers are so concentrated in China is making it increasingly difficult to competitively produce hemp fabrics elsewhere. This of course lessens the value-added future of growing hemp for a potential textile industry in North America. It is possible, however, that new technologies could change this situation, and especially in the EU development is underway to establish a fledgling domestic hemp textile industry. In addition to textiles used in clothing, coarser woven cloth (canvas) is used for upholstery, bags, sacks, and tarpaulins. There is very little effort in North America to produce such woven products, and non-woven material (Fig. 15) can be more easily produced. Hempline in Ontario, the first firm to grow hemp for commercial purposes in North America since the second word war (starting with experimental cultivation in 1994), is the exception, and is concerned with production of fiber for upholstery and carpeting.
I signed up to sell this product and the first bottle was amazing, but every bottle after that was worse in quality until the fourth bottle, and it didn't even work, my pain levels came back horrible. I will also add that I have been in many consultant based home business and this one by far is the worst, not only are the people you sign up under beyond rude and insulting, they will censor you on HempWorx pages or delete you altogether if they don't like what your opinion is. It's a one-sided company, if you say one thing they don't like they remove it so you will never really see any negative reviews because they won't allow it. I have been treated beyond despicable by ladies in this business who are trying to get rich off sick people. If the product was all that, they would not need mules to sell it!
My first bottle of 750mg peppermint was what I ordered and worked great. However, my second order of the same exact oil was different. Even though the label said 750mg peppermint, it had no flavor and I've had to use more for it to be affective. I feel cheated and scammed. I'm looking for a direct buying company in my area to purchase my next bottle from.
France is Europe's biggest producer (and the world's second largest producer) with 8,000 hectares (20,000 acres) cultivated. 70–80% of the hemp fibre produced in 2003 was used for specialty pulp for cigarette papers and technical applications. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. About 95% of hurds were used as animal bedding, while almost 5% was used in the building sector. In 2010/2011, a total of 11,000 hectares (27,000 acres) was cultivated with hemp in the EU, a decline compared with previous year.
Cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. The major psychoactive consituent in cannabis is ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compounds which are structurally similar to THC are referred to as cannabinoids. In addition, a number of recently identified compounds that differ structurally from cannabinoids nevertheless share many of their pharmacological properties. The Mexican term 'marijuana' is frequently used in referring to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries. The unpollinated female plants are called hashish. Cannabis oil (hashish oil) is a concentrate of cannabinoids obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or of the resin.
Hemp has very low levels of another cannabis compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) — the main psychoactive compound in marijuana. Evidence suggests that THC — not CBD — causes the symptoms people associate with getting high on marijuana, Blessing says. Unlike marijuana, which the CDC argues is addictive, CBD also doesn’t seem to be, according to the World Health Organization.
My first bottle of 750mg peppermint was what I ordered and worked great. However, my second order of the same exact oil was different. Even though the label said 750mg peppermint, it had no flavor and I've had to use more for it to be affective. I feel cheated and scammed. I'm looking for a direct buying company in my area to purchase my next bottle from.
The US Office of National Drug control Policy issued a statement on industrial hemp in 1997 (www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/policy/hemp%5Fold.html) which included the following: “Our primary concern about the legalization of the cultivation of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is the message it would send to the public at large, especially to our youth at a time when adolescent drug use is rising rapidly... The second major concern is that legalizing hemp production may mean the de facto legalization of marijuana cultivation. Industrial hemp and marijuana are the product of the same plant, Cannabis sativa... Supporters of the hemp legalization effort claim hemp cultivation could be profitable for US farmers. However, according to the USDA and the US Department of Commerce, the profitability of industrial hemp is highly uncertain and probably unlikely. Hemp is a novelty product with limited sustainable development value even in a novelty market... For every proposed use of industrial hemp, there already exists an available product, or raw material, which is cheaper to manufacture and provides better market results.... Countries with low labor costs such as the Philippines and China have a competitive advantage over any US hemp producer.”
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"Purchased ACE curriculum after purchasing another curriculum & finding out that the state required Social Studies & not history. Purchased Social Studies curriculum 1st & after my student saw the curriculum & working in it, decided they wanted to change ALL of the curriculum to ACE. LOVE this curriculum as the teacher & my student loves it, as well... Cannot recommend this highly enough! Getting ready to purchase next year's curriculum & as the student has requested, we will be sticking with ACE. Must also say that the books that must be purchased for the Literature & Creative Writing PACES are fantastic & our student LOVES them too!"
I totally agree. The greed of the pharmaceutical with their lobbyist to stop the government from making it a schedule III drug so much more research can be done. They do not care about the people, just money. We the people must rise up and let our government know, we care more about our friends and family than the money they give, to you congress men/women and senators get, and we VOTE. The only power we have is writing or calling congress men/women and senators, huge rallies and each and every ones VOTE. They would rather stay in office, than even receive big monies from big pharm for their campaigns. VOTES will win over.
Many countries differentiate between marijuana and hemp by the amount of THC produced per weight of a dry plant. In the U.S., industrial hemp is defined as “the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of such plant, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 THC concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.” The European Union has set the limit at 0.2 percent, while in Great Britain the limit is zero, unless you have a cultivation license to grow industrial hemp with no more than 0.2% THC.
The Cannabis plant has a history of medicinal use dating back thousands of years across many cultures. The Yanghai Tombs, a vast ancient cemetery (54 000 m2) situated in the Turfan district of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China, have revealed the 2700-year-old grave of a shaman. He is thought to have belonged to the Jushi culture recorded in the area centuries later in the Hanshu, Chap 96B. Near the head and foot of the shaman was a large leather basket and wooden bowl filled with 789g of cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination. This is the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 smokers were randomly chosen to receive either an inhaler of CBD oil or a placebo. Participants were asked to take a puff every time they had an urge to puff a cigarette. Over the week, those with placebo inhalers saw no change in their total number of cigarettes consumed, while those who were taking CBD saw a nearly 40 percent drop in their intake. Using the inhaler decreased the number of cigarettes without increasing their craving for nicotine, pointing towards a purpose for Cannabidiol in the withdrawal process.
Hemp products sold in stores are most often made with hemp seed oil, which can contain only trace amounts of full spectrum. While it has been noted that hemp seed oil can be a great source of nutrition, its marginal quantity of “full spectrum” per weight makes it unfeasible as a full spectrum supplement. Our Full Spectrum Hemp Oil, however, is extracted from the stalk of specifically selected hemp cultivars, offering higher percentages of “full spectrum” by weight and additional nutritional benefits from the contents of our oil.
Because the extraction used to make our CBD oil yields a full spectrum extract, our hemp extracts contain over 80 different phyto-cannabinoids, including CBD, CBC, CBG, CBG-A, CBC-A, and CBN, among many others. In addition to the cannabinoids naturally present in our industrial hemp extracts, there are many other types of natural molecules such as amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, omega fatty acids, and trace minerals. Additionally, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, flavonoids, ketones, nitrogenous compounds, alkanes, glycosides, pigments, water, and terpenes are all present in our CBD hemp.
However, the industry is evolving and it’s time that cannabis-based journalism evolves alongside it. What the industry needs now are in-depth reporting about challenges the marijuana market faces. Objective analysis about studies and medical implications of using marijuana. We need to have detailed accounts of the culture, economy, health, and safety of cannabis on a global scale.
Cannabis consumers have long prized potency (a high THC content) as one of the main factors that makes a particular strain more desirable. Though traditional demand for THC has caused an oversaturation of high-potency products, many consumers are starting to prefer less intense products that are lower in THC and higher in the non-intoxicating compound called cannabidiol (CBD).
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.
So I went on a months-long mission to try various CBD edibles, tinctures, balms, and vapes. What I soon discovered was that cannabidiol is no lightning bolt cure. Think of it as taking maintenance meds: You have to consume it regularly—in a dose and delivery method that works for you—to notice the progressive increase of benefits. It also doesn’t leave you completely devoid of the misery of pain. Instead, CBD helps make pain infinitely more tolerable—downgrading it from ER-worthy agony to manageable discomfort.
The market is rife with misinformation even when CBD is sold as a relatively simple oil or supplement. When it’s squirted into a latte or baked into a cookie, CBD’s uses and effects get even more opaque. The chemical’s loudest advocates make health claims far beyond the current scientific evidence, and its harshest critics often dismiss the compound entirely as just another snake oil in America’s long tradition of health scams. Journalists are starting to get a handle on what CBD actually does and what is actually known about it, but along with researchers and regulators, we’re still playing catch-up when it comes to the people who have pushed the compound into what feels like mainstream overnight success: entrepreneurs.
As the state of New York moves closer to legalizing marijuana, the New York City Council is making sure it has a say in what that legal market could look like. On Wednesday, the council held a hearing on various cannabis-related proposals and resolutions that members introduced earlier this month. Multiple committees—on public safety, the … Continue reading New York City Council Holds Joint Hearing On Marijuana Legalization
Although CBD oils aren’t regulated by the FDA, purchasing products stateside from one of the nine states where recreational and medical cannabis use is legal will likely result in a higher-quality product than buying one made with hemp-derived CBD oil imported from abroad, says Martin Lee, director of Project CBD, a nonprofit that promotes medical research into CBD.
In November 2015, Uttarakhand became the first state of India to legalize the cultivation of hemp for industrial purposes. Usage within the Hindu and Buddhist cultures of the Indian subcontinent is common, with many street vendors in India openly selling products infused with cannabis, and traditional medical practitioners in Sri Lanka selling products infused with cannabis for recreational purposes and well as for religious celebrations. It was criminalized in the Indian subcontinent by the Dutch and then the British. India and Sri Lanka have allowed cannabis to be taken in the context of traditional culture for recreational/celebratory purposes and also for medicinal purposes.
The question of whether heteromorphic sex chromosomes are indeed present is most conveniently answered if such chromosomes were clearly visible in a karyotype. Cannabis was one of the first plant species to be karyotyped; however, this was in a period when karyotype preparation was primitive by modern standards (see History of Cytogenetics). Heteromorphic sex chromosomes were reported to occur in staminate individuals of dioecious "Kentucky" hemp, but were not found in pistillate individuals of the same variety. Dioecious "Kentucky" hemp was assumed to use an XY mechanism. Heterosomes were not observed in analyzed individuals of monoecious "Kentucky" hemp, nor in an unidentified German cultivar. These varieties were assumed to have sex chromosome composition XX. According to other researchers, no modern karyotype of Cannabis had been published as of 1996. Proponents of the XY system state that Y chromosome is slightly larger than the X, but difficult to differentiate cytologically.
Because hemp-derived CBD currently lacks labeling and purity standards that are required of cannabis products sold at legal dispensaries, it exists in a regulatory limbo that laws don’t yet address. In the meantime, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health has announced that starting in July, putting CBD in food products will cost businesses points on their health inspections.
There are two main compounds found in cannabis: THC and CBD. Both are very effective in managing pain. THC gives us that familiar “high,” while CBD does not. For instance, medicinal CBD oil contains small amounts of THC, so users get all of the benefits of cannabis without altering their state of mind. A Canadian study found no serious side effects of medical cannabis after one year of pain treatment.
Market considerations also heavily determine the wisdom of investing in hemp. Growing hemp unfortunately has a magnetic attraction to many, so there is danger of overproduction. A marketing board could be useful to prevent unrestrained competition and price fluctuations, but is difficult to establish when the industry is still very small. As noted above, unwise investment in Canada produced a glut of seeds that resulted in price dumping and unprofitable levels for the majority. Cultural and production costs of hemp have been said to be comparable to those for corn, and while the truth of this remains to be confirmed, the legislative burden that accompanies hemp puts the crop at a unique disadvantage. Among the problems that Canadian farmers have faced are the challenge of government licensing (some delays, and a large learning curve), very expensive and sometime poor seed (farmers are not allowed to generate their own seed), teenagers raiding fields in the mistaken belief that marijuana is being grown, and great difficulties in exportation because of the necessity of convincing authorities that hemp is not a narcotic. Unless the producer participates in sharing of value-added income, large profits are unlikely. The industry widely recognizes that value added to the crop is the chief potential source of profit, as indeed for most other crops.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the nettle (Urticaceae) or mulberry (Moraceae) family, and later, along with the genus Humulus (hops), in a separate family, the hemp family (Cannabaceae sensu stricto). Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former family Celtidaceae, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae sensu lato.