Hemp has been grown for millennia in Asia and the Middle East for its fibre. Commercial production of hemp in the West took off in the eighteenth century, but was grown in the sixteenth century in eastern England. Because of colonial and naval expansion of the era, economies needed large quantities of hemp for rope and oakum. In the early 1940s, world production of hemp fiber ranged from 250 000 to 350 000 metric tonnes, Russia was the biggest producer.
When privacy isn’t a requirement, outdoor cannabis grows can provide many advantages over indoor operations. Sunlight is the single most important factor for successful outdoor marijuana growing. It’s important to choose a plot with total sunshine throughout the day. Therefore, cannabis growers in the northern hemisphere will want plots with southern exposure, exposing marijuana plants to the sun’s arc across the sky.
The ECS is responsible for setting the baseline activity levels of our immune system and nervous system, which then work to maintain our health. When the ECS falls out of whack, the systems that are regulated by it can begin to malfunction. CBD promotes the normal health and function of the endocannabinoid system, so it’s possible that CBD can help to alleviate the symptoms of conditions that are caused by dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system.
More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP. Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,
Fig. 8. Scanning electron micrographs of the abaxial surface of a perigonal bract (which envelops the fruit). These bracts are the most intoxicating part of the plant, and may contain 20% THC, dry weight. The resin is synthesized both in stalked and sessile glands. Multicellular secretory glands (of phallic appearance), some broken stalks of these (note cellular appearance), and unicellular cystolith hairs (claw-like structures) are pictured. Fig. 9. Some important cannabinoids of cannabis resin. D9-THC (delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol) is the chief intoxicant chemical and predominates in intoxicant strains, while the isomer D8-THC is usually present in no more than trace amounts. CBD (cannabidiol) is the chief non-intoxicant chemical, and predominates in non-intoxicant strains; it has sedative effects. The non-intoxicant CBN (cannabinol) is a frequent degradation or oxidation product. The non-intoxicant cannabichromene (CBC) is typically found in trace amounts in intoxicant strains. The non-intoxicant cannabigerol (CBG) is considered to be a precursor of the other cannbinoids (see Fig. 10).
Ten US states have legalized use of recreational marijuana as of November 2018. In 2012, voters in Colorado and Washington state passed initiatives legalizing cannabis for adults 21 and older under state law. In November 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and Washington D.C also approved recreational use of marijuana. In November 2016, four more states - California, Massachusetts, Maine, and Nevada - voted in recreational marijuana. On July 1, 2018 Vermont began allowing recreational use. In 2018, Michigan voted to legalize pot for recreational use, but a measure in North Dakota failed.
For many, the medical and therapeutic potential of cannabis is what makes legalizing the marijuana plant such an important political and social task. Federal prohibition has established barriers to comprehensive cannabis research in the United States. However, researchers in other countries continue to make significant contributions to our knowledge of the cannabis plant and how it affects the human body.
The high absorbency of hemp hurds has led to their occasional use as an absorbent for oil and waste spill cleanup. Hemp as an industrial absorbent has generated some interest in Alberta, for use in land reclamation in the oil and gas industry. Because hemp hurds are a costly product, it is likely that animal bedding will remain the most important application.
“Some investor pushback on Aurora’s investment case is they have spent large amounts on numerous assets across the value chain, with perhaps little thought to which are best suited,” Bennett wrote in a note to clients. “Peltz should support in ensuring assets are kept that yield most value. Given his past, we would also suggest that his involvement should support in maximizing the route towards profitability.”
There has actually been a substantial amount of experiments done on cannabidiol that has proved its potential healing powers. Dr. Sean McAllister, a scientist from the Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, made an astounding discovery about CBD. McAllister has been studying cannabinoid compounds for 10 years now in search of new therapeutic interventions for various cancers. He discovered that cannabidiol is a potent inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor growth.
Marijuana has in fact been grown for medicinal research in North America by both the Canadian (Fig. 40) and American governments, and this will likely continue. The possibility of marijuana becoming a legal commercial crop in North America is, to say the least, unlikely in the foreseeable future. Nevertheless the private sector is currently producing medicinal marijuana in Europe and Canada, so the following orientation to marijuana as a potential authorized crop is not merely academic.
Retting is generally done in the field (Fig. 46, 47). This typically requires weeks. The windrows should be turned once or twice. If not turned, the stems close to the ground will remain green while the top ones are retted and turn brown. When the stalks have become sufficiently retted requires experience—the fibers should have turned golden or grayish in color, and should separate easily from the interior wood. Baling can be done with any kind of baler (Fig. 48). Stalks should have less than 15% moisture when baled, and should be allowed to dry to about 10% in storage. Bales must be stored indoors. Retted stalks are loosely held together, and for highest quality fiber applications need to be decorticated, scutched, hackled, and combed to remove the remaining pieces of stalks, broken fibers, and extraneous material. The equipment for this is rare in North America, and consequently use of domestically-produced fiber for high quality textile applications is extremely limited. However, as described above relatively crude fiber preparations also have applications.
There has been little high-quality research into the use of cannabidiol for epilepsy, and what there is is limited to refractory epilepsy in children. While the results of using medical-grade cannabidiol in combination with conventional medication shows some promise, they did not lead to seizures being eliminated, and were associated with some minor adverse effects.
Fig. 11. Frequency histograms of THC concentration in germplasm collections. Left, collection of E. Small and D. Marcus; of the 167 accessions, 43% had THC levels >0.3%. Right, the collection of the Vavilov Institute, St. Petersburg; of the 278 accessions for which chemical analyses were reported in Anonymous (1975), about 55% had THC levels >0.3%.
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Although CBD oils aren’t regulated by the FDA, purchasing products stateside from one of the nine states where recreational and medical cannabis use is legal will likely result in a higher-quality product than buying one made with hemp-derived CBD oil imported from abroad, says Martin Lee, director of Project CBD, a nonprofit that promotes medical research into CBD.
If you really want something that’s ultra-low dose, these goji berries are the way to go. At 1mg THC and 2mg CBD per piece, there’s no going wrong. And it’s even more delicious than Plus Products’ pineapple and coconut gummies. Beware though: They’re beyond tasty so it’s very easy to forget that they actually contain cannabis. The organic goji berries are sourced from Tibet via Imlak’esh Organics and the chocolate complements them perfectly. I could eat three handfuls. But, of course, I won’t.
Wikidata: Q79817 Wikispecies: Cannabis APDB: 189080 APNI: 106875 BioLib: 3465 EoL: 72695 EPPO: 1CNIG FloraBase: 22595 FNA: 105522 FoC: 105522 GBIF: 2984538 GRIN: 2034 iNaturalist: 72032 IPNI: 40737-1 IRMNG: 1280947 ITIS: 19108 NBN: NHMSYS0000456774 NCBI: 3482 NZOR: 5344e3b5-4049-474a-ac38-eb23ffc8f216 PLANTS: CANNA POWO: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:30204649-2 Tropicos: 40000735 uBio: 4894539 VASCAN: 945
But experimental anxiety, which is when stressors are applied to make a volunteer feel anxious for a test, is different than clinical anxiety, and long-term, rigorous clinical trials are necessary to find CBD’s real-life effects on patients. Several are under way right now, including one Blessing is conducting at NYU, but the process of completing those, finding appropriate dosages, and creating a consistent drug that can meet Food and Drug Administration approval standards takes time. “Getting into the full pipeline of FDA approval is probably eight to 10 years away,” Blessing says.
TINA.org reached out to the Zwagils, the company’s founders, for comment. Erin McGinnis, HempWorx’s director of compliance, responded with a statement indicating the company is in the process of reviewing every item in the above article and every entry in the health and income claims databases TINA.org compiled. As of 9/6/18, HempWorx had removed 83 of more than 100 health claims and 35 of more than 50 income claims. In addition, McGinnis said HempWorx has suspended several distributors and terminated one in response to TINA.org’s findings.
Industrial hemp contains, by weight, far less CBD than CBD-rich cultivars such as Harlequin or Sour Tsunami. This means that producing a single 10 mL dose of CBD would require the cultivation and extraction of far more hemp than it would from whole-plant marijuana; thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Hemp is classified as a “bioaccumulator,” or a plant that naturally absorbs toxicants from the soil.
Peltz will be granted options to purchase 19.9 million common shares in the company at C$10.34 ($7.74) a share. The options will vest over a four-year period on a quarterly basis, and the vesting may accelerate if the company meet certain goals, including the consummation of certain defined transactions and the share price being at least at C$31.02 and C$41.36 for a specified number of trading days.
CBD has proven neuroprotective effects and its anti-cancer properties are being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere. A 2010 brain cancer study by California scientists found that CBD “enhances the inhibitory effects of THC on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival.” This means that CBD makes THC even more potent as an anticancer substance. Also in 2010, German researchers reported that CBD stimulates neurogenesis, the growth of new brain cells, in adult mammals.
Hemp is possibly one of the earliest plants to be cultivated. An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis achenes from about 8000 BC, probably signifying use of the plant. Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC. The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper. The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation.