Categories: English terms borrowed from LatinEnglish terms derived from LatinEnglish terms derived from Ancient GreekEnglish doubletsEnglish 3-syllable wordsEnglish terms with IPA pronunciationEnglish terms with audio linksEnglish lemmasEnglish nounsEnglish uncountable nounsEnglish countable nounsen:Marijuanaen:Rosales order plantsFrench terms borrowed from LatinFrench terms derived from LatinFrench terms derived from Ancient GreekFrench doubletsFrench 3-syllable wordsFrench terms with IPA pronunciationFrench lemmasFrench nounsFrench masculine nounsFrench uncountable nounsfr:Recreational drugsLatin terms derived from Ancient GreekLatin 3-syllable wordsLatin terms with IPA pronunciationLatin lemmasLatin nounsLatin feminine nounsLatin third declension nounsLatin feminine nouns in the third declensionLatin non-lemma formsLatin noun formsla:PlantsNorman terms borrowed from LatinNorman terms derived from LatinNorman terms derived from Ancient GreekNorman lemmasNorman nounsnrf:Plantsnrf:Recreational drugsSpanish terms borrowed from LatinSpanish terms derived from LatinSpanish terms derived from Ancient GreekSpanish doubletsSpanish lemmasSpanish nounsSpanish uncountable nounses:Recreational drugsSwedish terms borrowed from LatinSwedish terms derived from LatinSwedish lemmasSwedish nounssv:Plantssv:Recreational drugs
As you comb through the web pages, it’s clear the product is meant for a multi-level marketing scheme.  Many of these companies do not expect anyone to actually use the product.  They just  want people who will buy it in hopes of selling it to someone else.  One previous potential customer has said he could not buy the product, as the company demanded a referral.  This means multi-level marketing might be their main business.  This can lead to problems getting the product for regular consumers, though they do have an option to sell directly to the consumer as well on the website.
An absence of such fiber-strain traits as tallness, limited branching, long internodes, and very hollow stems, is characteristic of narcotic strains. Drug forms have historically been grown in areas south of the north-temperate zone, often close to the equator, and are photoperiodically adapted to a long season. When grown in north-temperate climates maturation is much-delayed until late fall, or the plants succumb to cold weather before they are able to produce seeds. Unlike fiber strains that have been selected to grow well at extremely high densities, drug strains tend to be less persistent when grown in high concentration (de Meijer 1994). Drug strains can be very similar in appearance to fiber strains. However, a characteristic type of narcotic plant was selected in southern Asia, particularly in India and neighboring countries. This is dioecious, short (about a meter in height), highly branched, with large leaves (i.e. wide leaflets), and it is slow to mature. The appearance is rather like a short, conical Christmas tree.
Cooper recently got funding from the National Institutes of Health for a study looking at cannabinoids — including CBD in isolation — as a substitute for opioids, and numerous other clinical trials of CBD are underway. It will be several years before results are available, but these studies should help clarify both what benefits the substance may provide and any side effects it may come with. Most of the adverse effects so far associated with cannabis, such as impairments in short-term memory, coordination and judgment,2 come from products that contain THC as well as CBD, Cooper said, but we need to do more studies to find out for sure whether CBD has fewer risks. Studies are also needed to identify the best way to administer and dose CBD. “I get emails from people asking me what dose of CBD to use, and the truth is, we really don’t know,” Cooper said.
Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
By "a few drops a day" what do you mean? It says to "start at" 5 drops and work up to 15, if needed. I hate to talk negative about a product that I have yet to try so don't take it that way. However, 5-15 drops is a huge range and then 2X a day.....that bottle will empty pretty fast. Again, what is "a few drops a day" and how often are you taking a few drops? Thanks for your reply

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Yet Germany’s health insurance companies, doctors, and pharmacies weren’t prepared for the rush. Prior to legalization, cannabis represented a small niche in the country with just a thousands patients with access to the drug because of a special permit. But legalization spawned a rapid growth; in 2018 alone, there were 142,000 prescriptions issued.
Should any legal disputes arise between a distributor and the company, proceedings shall take place in Dallas, Texas, where the matter will be resolved by “mandatory, final, binding, nonappealable arbitration.” However, if the distributor wins, it won’t be a great victory as damages are “limited to the amount of products [he or she] has purchased from the company that are in resalable condition.”
TINA.org reached out to the Zwagils, the company’s founders, for comment. Erin McGinnis, HempWorx’s director of compliance, responded with a statement indicating the company is in the process of reviewing every item in the above article and every entry in the health and income claims databases TINA.org compiled. As of 9/6/18, HempWorx had removed 83 of more than 100 health claims and 35 of more than 50 income claims. In addition, McGinnis said HempWorx has suspended several distributors and terminated one in response to TINA.org’s findings.
Regarding health claims, the contract states: “Under no circumstances may [a distributor] prescribe any Product as suitable for a particular ailment. No claims may be made as to therapeutic or curative properties of any Product offered by the Company.” As for income claims, the contract says distributors are “prohibited from making false, misleading, or unrepresentative claims regarding earning potential.” It adds that, when an income claim reflects actual earnings, the claim must be accompanied by “the Company’s current Annual Average Income Disclosure, posted on the Company’s website.” But as of the date of publication, it was not posted there.
Oh, and that ideal ratio of omegas? Researchers in Spain say that composition makes hemp oil high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A high ratio of PUFAs to saturated fats has been linked to reductions in cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries). That suggests hemp oil may have the potential to help prevent heart disease, according to the study authors. But again, none of this has been tested in people.
Until recent times, the cultivation of hemp primarily as an oilseed was largely unknown, except in Russia. Today, it is difficult to reconstruct the type of plant that was grown there as an oilseed, because such cultivation has essentially been abandoned. Oilseed hemp cultivars in the modern sense were not available until very recently, but some land races certainly were grown specifically for seeds in Russia. Dewey (1914) gave the following information: “The short oil-seed hemp with slender stems, about 30 inches high, bearing compact clusters of seeds and maturing in 60 to 90 days, is of little value for fiber production, but the experimental plants, grown from seed imported from Russia, indicate that it may be valuable as an oil-seed crop to be harvested and threshed in the same manner as oil-seed flax.” Most hemp oilseed in Europe is currently obtained from so-called “dual usage” plants (employed for harvest of both stem fiber and seeds, from the same plants). Of the European dual-usage cultivars, ‘Uniko B’ and ‘Fasamo’ are particularly suited to being grown as oilseeds. Very recently, cultivars have been bred specifically for oilseed production. These include ‘Finola,’ formerly known as ‘Fin-314’ (Fig. 6) and ‘Anka’ (Fig. 7), which are relatively short, little-branched, mature early in north-temperate regions, and are ideal for high-density planting and harvest with conventional equipment. Dewey (1914) noted that a Turkish narcotic type of land race called “Smyrna” was commonly used in the early 20th century in the US to produce birdseed, because (like most narcotic types of Cannabis) it is densely branched, producing many flowers, hence seeds. While oilseed land races in northern Russia would have been short, early-maturing plants in view of the short growing season, in more southern areas oilseed landraces likely had moderate height, and were spaced more widely to allow abundant branching and seed production to develop. Until Canada replaced China in 1998 as a source of imported seeds for the US, most seeds used for various purposes in the US were sterilized and imported from China. Indeed, China remains the largest producer of hempseed. We have grown Chinese hemp land races, and these were short, branched, adapted to a very long growing season (i.e. they come into flower very slowly in response to photoperiodic induction of short days in the fall), and altogether they were rather reminiscent of Dewey’s description of Smyrna. Although similar in appearance to narcotic strains of C. sativa, the Chinese land races we grew were in fact low in intoxicating constituents, and it may well be that what Dewey thought was a narcotic strain was not. Although some forms of C. sativa have quite large seeds, until recently oilseed forms appear to have been mainly selected for a heavy yield of seeds, usually recognizable by abundant branching. Such forms are typically grown at lower densities than hemp grown only for fiber, as this promotes branching, although it should be understood that the genetic propensity for branching has been selected. Percentage or quality of oil in the seeds does not appear to have been important in the past, although selection for these traits is now being conducted. Most significantly, modern selection is occurring with regard to mechanized harvesting, particularly the ability to grow in high density as single-headed stalks with very short branches bearing considerable seed.
Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is a patented medicine containing CBD and THC in equal proportions. The drug was approved by Health Canada in 2005 for prescription to treat central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for cancer related pain.[39][40] In New Zealand Sativex® is approved for use as an add-on treatment for symptom improvement in patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy.[41]
It is not surprising that male-associated markers are relatively abundant. In dioecious plants where sex chromosomes have not been identified, markers for maleness indicate either the presence of sex chromosomes which have not been distinguished by cytological methods or that the marker is tightly linked to a gene involved in sex determination.[15]
Prior to the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, 41 states had passed industrial hemp-related legislation. 39 of those states legalized statewide hemp cultivation programs that defined hemp specifically to differentiate it from marijuana, establish licensing requirements, and regulate production. The Hemp Farming Act now requires state departments of agriculture to consult with their governors and chief law enforcement officers on a hemp regulatory program, which will then be submitted to the United States Secretary of Agriculture for approval. According to Section 297B of the bill, state hemp regulatory programs must include a system to maintain information on all land on which hemp is cultivated, procedures for testing THC levels in hemp, and procedures for disposing of products that violate THC content restrictions.
In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.

Indoor marijuana grows provide the most control over growing conditions. With a simple setup including a tent, proper lighting, and an air circulation system, home marijuana growers can produce consistent yields. Both soil and hydro systems can be utilized for indoor marijuana grows. Soil setups are generally cheaper and more forgiving, but hydro systems tend to be more common.


More recently, Sakamoto and various co-authors[35][36] have used RAPD to isolate several genetic marker sequences that they name Male-Associated DNA in Cannabis (MADC), and which they interpret as indirect evidence of a male chromosome. Several other research groups have reported identification of male-associated markers using RAPD and AFLP.[37][25][38] Ainsworth commented on these findings, stating,
In Western Europe, the cultivation of hemp was not legally banned by the 1930s, but the commercial cultivation stopped by then, due to decreased demand compared to increasingly popular artificial fibers.[148] Speculation about the potential for commercial cultivation of hemp in large quantities has been criticized due to successful competition from other fibers for many products. The world production of hemp fiber fell from over 300,000 metric tons 1961 to about 75,000 metric tons in the early 1990s and has after that been stable at that level.[149]
Dehulled (i.e. hulled) hemp seed is a very recent phenomenon, first produced in quantity in Europe. Hemp seeds have been used as food since ancient times, but generally the whole seed, including the hull, was eaten. Hemp seed was a grain used in ancient China, although there has been only minor direct use of hemp seed as food by humans. In the past, hemp seed has generally been a food of the lower classes, or a famine food. Peanut-butter type preparations have been produced from hemp seed in Europe for centuries, but were rather gritty since technology for removing the hulls was rudimentary. Modern seed dehulling using mechanical separation produces a smooth, white, gritless hemp seed meal that needs no additional treatment before it is consumed. It is important to understand, therefore, that the quality of modern hemp seed for human consumption far exceeds anything produced historically. This seed meal should be distinguished from the protein-rich, oil-poor seed cake remaining after oil has been expressed, that is used for livestock feed. The seed cake is also referred to as “seed meal,” and has proven to be excellent for animals (Mustafa et al. 1999).

CBD research is still in its infancy because both the substance itself and the cultivation of the plants from which it’s derived have long been illegal in the United States. And despite all those cookies you see for sale, CBD does seem to remain illegal, unless FDA approved. In December, hemp cultivation was legalized nationwide as a provision of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018. But the FDA released a statement explicating the agency’s stance on CBD’s legality: In short, the FDA does not recognize a distinction between cannabis- and hemp-derived CBD and, for the time being, considers both to be illegal—especially as a questionably safe food additive. Although CBD isn’t dangerous to healthy people, it can affect how the body metabolizes certain types of medication, which Blessing says could lead to overdose in some cases. (Because of the government shutdown, the FDA is unavailable to explain its stance or enforcement plans in further detail.)


Omega-3 and omega-6s have been shown to help treat conditions like atopic dermatitis (a.k.a. eczema), which can leave your skin dry and itchy. GLA in particular has been shown to improve dry skin and eczema. One 2005 study even found people who consumed hempseed oil for 20 weeks had a reduction in oil and reduced the symptoms and appearance of eczema after 20 weeks. But that research is preliminary, Tishler points out.
HempWorx CBD is an interesting brand that has no issue with transparency in terms of how they operate as a business, and where they source their raw hemp plant material from. Also, one of the main things that stands out to me as that they’re one of the only companies I know of that offers specific dosing guidelines for a range of serious medical conditions. This is a bit odd, however, as they also make it clear that CBD is not approved by the FDA as a medicine, and thus none of their products are designed to “treat, cure, or prevent” any disease.
Deeper pockets are also helping them to dominate CBD products—derived from cannabis but without a high—that are of interest to some of the world’s biggest consumer companies, including... — Carol Ryan, WSJ, "U.S. Cannabis Law Is Helping Canada Make Hay," 27 Feb. 2019 Meanwhile, 10 states and Washington, DC, have legalized the intoxicating form of cannabis for recreational purposes, while 32 states have for medical uses. — German Lopez, Vox, "Trump and Congress just legalized hemp," 20 Dec. 2018 The state’s Cannabis Control Commission has since granted one dispensary a provisional retail license, and another company licenses to grow and transport non-medical cannabis. — Matthew Ormseth, courant.com, "U.S. Attorney in Massachusetts Says Opioids, Not Marijuana, A Priority As State Readies Retail Market," 10 July 2018 The city's mayor Alex Morse believes Holyoke is the ideal location for the cannabis industry in Massachusetts -- and possibly the country. — CBS News, "Holyoke, Massachusetts, is ready to welcome the marijuana industry with open arms," 30 June 2018 Rat offspring exposed to THC — tetrahydrocannabinol, the chief psychoactive ingredient in cannabis — and others that were not had to learn how to press one of two levers to get a sugar pellet reward. — Erik Lacitis, The Seattle Times, "‘Something wasn’t clicking’: WSU study shows offspring of pregnant rats exposed to THC have impaired development," 20 Nov. 2018 It's also derived from cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major compounds found in cannabis. — Sarah Jacoby, SELF, "Updated: What You Need to Know About Epidiolex, the First FDA-Approved Drug Made From Cannabis," 1 Nov. 2018 Attendees must bring their own cannabis, but smoking, edibles, and vaping are all encouraged as part of the creative process and the social experience. — Sarah Shemkus, BostonGlobe.com, "5 marijuana-infused things to do in New England," 21 June 2018 But Salmonella can also turn up in unexpected places — like in tahini, or on cantaloupes, or even drugs like cannabis and kratom. — Rachel Becker, The Verge, "Machine learning could help figure out what pooped on your produce," 12 Dec. 2018
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and marijuana — has become unclear to the many and some even consider the three plants to be one in the same. Because of this, the three terms are often used interchangeably, which has created difficulties when understanding the usage and benefits of Hemp vs Marijuana and Cannabis in general.
The company's Live Oxygen line includes: The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Cleanser that gentle daily cleanses; The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Toner that hydrates the skin and balances oil, while minimizing pores; The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Facial Lotion that acts like a light daily moisturizer; As well as The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Cream that provides a protective layer over the skin.
The Hemp Farming Act of 2018, part of the 2018 Farm Bill[106] signed by President Donald Trump December 20, 2018,[107] changed hemp from a controlled substance to an agricultural commodity, legalizing hemp federally, which made it easier for farmers to get production licenses, get loans to grow hemp, and allowed them to get federal crop insurance.[106]
Hemp seeds can be eaten raw, ground into hemp meal, sprouted or made into dried sprout powder. Hemp seeds can also be made into a liquid and used for baking or for beverages such as hemp milk and tisanes.[15] Hemp oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids.[16] The leaves of the hemp plant, while not as nutritional as the seeds, are edible and can be consumed raw as leafy vegetables in salads, and pressed to make juice.[17]
Prior to the Hemp Farming Act of 2018, 41 states had passed industrial hemp-related legislation. 39 of those states legalized statewide hemp cultivation programs that defined hemp specifically to differentiate it from marijuana, establish licensing requirements, and regulate production. The Hemp Farming Act now requires state departments of agriculture to consult with their governors and chief law enforcement officers on a hemp regulatory program, which will then be submitted to the United States Secretary of Agriculture for approval. According to Section 297B of the bill, state hemp regulatory programs must include a system to maintain information on all land on which hemp is cultivated, procedures for testing THC levels in hemp, and procedures for disposing of products that violate THC content restrictions.

Health psychology, developed in the late 1970s, is its own domain of inquiry. A health psychologist, also called a medical psychologist, helps individuals explore the link between emotions and physical health. The health psychologist also helps physicians and medical professionals understand the emotional effects of a patient’s illness or disease. These experts practice in such areas of health as chronic pain management, oncology, physical rehabilitation, addiction treatment, and eating disorders, among others. Health psychologists can be found in clinics, hospitals, private practice, and public health agencies. Some also work in corporate settings to promote health and wellness among employees, engaging in workplace policies and decision-making.
An absence of such fiber-strain traits as tallness, limited branching, long internodes, and very hollow stems, is characteristic of narcotic strains. Drug forms have historically been grown in areas south of the north-temperate zone, often close to the equator, and are photoperiodically adapted to a long season. When grown in north-temperate climates maturation is much-delayed until late fall, or the plants succumb to cold weather before they are able to produce seeds. Unlike fiber strains that have been selected to grow well at extremely high densities, drug strains tend to be less persistent when grown in high concentration (de Meijer 1994). Drug strains can be very similar in appearance to fiber strains. However, a characteristic type of narcotic plant was selected in southern Asia, particularly in India and neighboring countries. This is dioecious, short (about a meter in height), highly branched, with large leaves (i.e. wide leaflets), and it is slow to mature. The appearance is rather like a short, conical Christmas tree.
In 1 dose of CBD oil I felt results. The next day, it was easier getting out of bed. I purchased a... bottle of the 500 and my carpal tunnel stopped hurting completely. My whole body feels less inflamed and I have more mobility. I had back/neck pain all of the time, but Now I am pain free! I also signed up as a distributor. Thank you Beth Annie Stockdale! See More
Living a healthy life means making lifestyle choices that support your physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional well-being. Managing your health can be challenging at times; while one facet of your wellness demands more attention than others, you may end up struggling to maintain a good balance in other areas. To be of sound body, mind, and spirit, it’s important to pay attention to all aspects of health—your mental, emotional, and spiritual sides all play a role in your physical welfare, and vice versa. A state of optimal well-being means more than just the absence of disease or disorder; it also means having the resources to cope with problems and circumstances beyond your control and recover from difficult or troubling situations. This intersection between health and behavior can help you prevent or at least delay chronic illness, and steer you to make better decisions about your well-being.
One of the most curious uses of hemp is as a fence to prevent pollen transfer in commercial production of seeds. Isolation distances for ensuring that seeds produced are pure are considerable for many plants, and often impractical. At one point in the 1980s, the only permitted use of hemp in Germany was as a fence or hedge to prevent plots of beets being used for seed production from being contaminated by pollen from ruderal beets. The high and rather inpenetrable hedge that hemp can produce was considered unsurpassed by any other species for the purpose. As well, the sticky leaves of hemp were thought to trap pollen. However, Saeglitz et al. (2000) demonstrated that the spread of beet pollen is not effectively prevented by hemp hedges. Fiber (i.e. tall) cultivars of hemp were also once used in Europe as wind-breaks, protecting vulnerable crops against wind damage. Although hemp plants can lodge, on the whole very tall hemp is remarkably resistant against wind.

This cannabinoid is known as cannabidiol (CBD) and is the second most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis on the market today. Research performed by G.W. Pharmaceuticals suggests that CBD could be used for treating symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases, diabetes, nausea, bowel disorders, and many other hard-to-control side effects. According to an research by Project CBD, CBD has even demonstrated neuroprotective effects, and its anti-cancer potential is currently being explored.
As the state of New York moves closer to legalizing marijuana, the New York City Council is making sure it has a say in what that legal market could look like. On Wednesday, the council held a hearing on various cannabis-related proposals and resolutions that members introduced earlier this month. Multiple committees—on public safety, the … Continue reading New York City Council Holds Joint Hearing On Marijuana Legalization
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[52] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[53] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[54] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[55] In February 2019, the New York City Department of Health announced plans to fine restaurants that sell food or drinks containing CBD, beginning in October 2019.[56]
The most valid claims to environmental friendliness of hemp are with respect to agricultural biocides (pesticides, fungicides, herbicides). Cannabis sativa is known to be exceptionally resistant to pests (Fig. 51), although, the degree of immunity to attacking organisms has been greatly exaggerated, with several insects and fungi specializing on hemp. Despite this, use of pesticides and fungicides on hemp is usually unnecessary, although introduction of hemp to regions should be expected to generate local problems. Cannabis sativa is also relatively resistant to weeds, and so usually requires relatively little herbicide. Fields intended for hemp use are still frequently normally cleared of weeds using herbicides, but so long as hemp is thickly seeded (as is always done when hemp is grown for fiber), the rapidly developing young plants normally shade out competing weeds.
The self-medication hypothesis was not supported in either the van Os or Henquet studies. Both studies found that early psychotic symptoms did not predict an increased risk of using cannabis (as is required by the self-medication hypothesis). The direction of the relationships was from early cannabis use to psychosis. Their negative results have recently been supported by Verdoux et al. (2002), who examined the temporal relationship between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms using an experience sampling method. They asked 79 college students to report on their drug use and experience of psychotic symptoms at randomly selected time points, several times each day over 7 consecutive days. The sample included high cannabis users (n = 41) and an over-representation of students identified as vulnerable to psychosis (n = 16). Verdoux and colleagues found that in time periods when cannabis was used, users reported more unusual perceptions, and these relationships were stronger in vulnerable individuals. There was no temporal relationship between reporting unusual experiences and using cannabis use, as would be predicted by the self-medication hypothesis.
Hempworx probably has some utility as a multi-level marketing tool.  If we believe the lab reports, the CBD oil may be a good product.  It has at least 10 mg of CBD per dropper, and less than 1 mg of other cannabinoids.  Even the coffee tells you exactly how much CBD is in it and it is a therapeutic amount.  So, they get a good grade for this.  This is a good mix of cannabinoids.  However, it comes at the expense of an affiliate program so the price is significantly marked up.

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Over 100 phytocannabinoids, as well as terpenoids, fatty acids, and other compounds with health relevance, have been found in Cannabis. The pharmacological importance of cannabinoids has been intensively studied. Multiple mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on the nervous system are being elucidated. Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. Hemp seed oil and terpenoids have health-promoting effects. The relationship between Cannabis chemotype and genotype is being revealed by chemical and genetic analyses. Various omics platform facilitate the basic and applied studies of Cannabis plants. An expanded Cannabaceae family, which consists of six genera, is advocated. This chapter summarizes the recent research progress of phytochemistry, pharmacology, and omics of Cannabis plants.


Hi, I'm Shane and welcome to HempCaptain.com. Here you will find honest and accurate information about CBDs, medical marijuana, hemp, and much more. I am passionate about using CBDs to enhance and improve life, and it is my goal to share the most up-to-date information and research with our readers. Visit our about page to learn more about me and the HempCaptain mission. Thanks for visiting!
Despite advanced analytical techniques, much of the cannabis used recreationally is inaccurately classified. One laboratory at the University of British Columbia found that Jamaican Lamb's Bread, claimed to be 100% sativa, was in fact almost 100% indica (the opposite strain).[83] Legalization of cannabis in Canada (as of October 17, 2018) may help spur private-sector research, especially in terms of diversification of strains. It should also improve classification accuracy for cannabis used recreationally. Legalization coupled with Canadian government (Health Canada) oversight of production and labelling will likely result in more—and more accurate—testing to determine exact strains and content. Furthermore, the rise of craft cannabis growers in Canada should ensure quality, experimentation/research, and diversification of strains among private-sector producers.[84]
HempWorx com assumes no responsibility for the improper use of and self-diagnosis and/or treatment using these products. Our products should not be confused with prescription medicine and they should not be used as a substitute for medically supervised therapy. If you suspect you suffer from clinical deficiencies, consult a licensed, qualified medical doctor. You must be at least 18 years old to visit our website and make product purchases.
Choosing CBD products isn’t as simple as picking something off the dispensary shelf and then walking out the door. Consumers should be aware that a handful of hemp products on the market pay lip service to governmental regulations by labeling themselves as hemp, despite containing cannabinoids and terpenoids. Some CBD products are completely devoid of cannabinoids including CBD, despite package labeling. The FDA purchased a number of CBD products online in 2015 and 2016 to test them for the presence of CBD and other cannabinoids. They found that the amount of CBD these products claimed on their labels was markedly inaccurate; some didn’t even contain CBD.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant. As we’ve discovered more about the human species as well as the plants that we’ve learned of the immense health value that CBD brings to the table. It has quickly become a staple supplement for millions who seek a natural alternative to dangerous pharmaceuticals, alien to nature’s perfect remedies.
Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and disorders are associated in the general population (see, for example, Degenhardt and Hall, 2001; Tien and Anthony, 1990) and in clinical samples of patients with schizophrenia (Mueser et al., 1992; Warner et al., 1994; Hambrecht and Hafner, 1996). The major contending hypotheses to explain the association have been: (i) that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia in persons who are otherwise vulnerable; (ii) cannabis use is a form of self-medication for schizophrenia; and (iii) that the association arises from uncontrolled residual confounding by variables that predict an increased risk of cannabis use and of schizophrenia (Macleod et al., 2004).
Some states only allow for products infused with CBD, some only allow for high-CBD and low-THC products, while others allow both THC and CBD. To further confuse the American citizenry, some states permit patients the use of CBD, but require that they travel to another state to purchase it. To make sense of this confounding patchwork and to learn about each individual state’s CBD laws, read the Weedmaps Laws and Regulations page.
Mental illness is described as 'the spectrum of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions that interfere with social and emotional well-being and the lives and productivity of people. Having a mental illness can seriously impair, temporarily or permanently, the mental functioning of a person. Other terms include: 'mental health problem', 'illness', 'disorder', 'dysfunction'.[37]
As part of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, or the 2018 Farm Bill, signed by Republican President Donald Trump, the Hemp Farming Act of 2018 removed hemp (with less than 0.3% THC) from Schedule I, the most restrictive classification of controlled substances that are considered highly prone to abuse and not to have any medicinal benefit. This move allowed for cultivation and distribution of hemp as a legal agricultural product. Under the Hemp Farming Act, hemp cultivation is no longer limited to state departments and universities. In addition, the act allows hemp farmers rights to water, crop insurance, and federal agricultural grants, as well as legal access to national banking. Hemp may also be transported across state lines.   
A 2015 review found that the use of high CBD-to-THC strains of cannabis showed significantly fewer positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations, better cognitive function and both lower risk for developing psychosis, as well as a later age of onset of the illness, compared to cannabis with low CBD-to-THC ratios.[279] A 2014 Cochrane review found that research was insufficient to determine the safety and efficacy to using cannabis to treat schizophrenia or psychosis.[280] As of 2017, the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory and possible pain relieving effects of cannabis are under preliminary research.[281]
While research into the effects of CBD on specific conditions is important, a broader perspective on the relationship between CBD and the human body is necessary to understand how this unique compound works. Interestingly, many of the conditions that are supposedly helped by CBD have no well-understood cause, from acne to Alzheimer’s disease. However, one of the few common denominators between these conditions is the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in their causes.
One of the first bioprospecting groups that attempted to implement the goals and guidelines of the CBD was a collaboration between the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Company and Costa Rica's Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), a private, nonprofit conservation and research group, INBio agreed to provide Merck with a limited number of plants, fungi, and other samples from Costa Rica's protected areas for scientific and commercial evaluation.
You can rub CBD oil on your skin or drop it under your tongue; you can eat it as a sugarcoated gummy or drink it as a Goop-approved cocktail. There's evidence (some scientific, plenty anecdotal) that it helps with epileptic seizures, opioid addiction, PTSD, arthritis, anxiety, insomnia, nausea, chronic pain, and much more. If you believe the hype, CBD can do just about anything for your physical and mental health — and it won't get you high as a kite.

Common treatments for fibromyalgia are anti-inflammatory medications, opioid pain medications, and corticosteroids. A 2011 study that focused on CBD treatment for fibromyalgia produced very promising results for future uses in treatment. Half of the 56 participants used Cannabidiol, while the other half used traditional methods to treat their condition. Those that used cannabis saw a great reduction in their symptoms and pain, while those using traditional methods didn’t see much of an improvement.


Some jurisdictions use free voluntary treatment programs and/or mandatory treatment programs for frequent known users. Simple possession can carry long prison terms in some countries, particularly in East Asia, where the sale of cannabis may lead to a sentence of life in prison or even execution. Political parties, non-profit organizations, and causes based on the legalization of medical cannabis and/or legalizing the plant entirely (with some restrictions) have emerged in such countries as China and Thailand.[225][226]
We have been using cannabis oil with a 1:1 CBD/THC ratio from “AnnCannMed” in treating my husband with pancreatic cancer with a lot of improvement since 4 weeks and the product is working in a miraculous way beyond our expectations. The medication is working with super proof. We recommend you visit AnnCannMed for your health prescriptions and medical purchases and feel support talking to licensed physicians

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