Medical marijuana refers to the use of the Cannabis plant as a physician-recommended herbal therapy as well as synthetic[191] THC and cannabinoids. So far, the medical use of cannabis is legal only in a limited number of territories, including Canada,[38] Belgium, Australia, the Netherlands, Spain, and many U.S. states. This usage generally requires a prescription, and distribution is usually done within a framework defined by local laws. There is evidence supporting the use of cannabis or its derivatives in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, neuropathic pain, and multiple sclerosis. Lower levels of evidence support its use for AIDS wasting syndrome, epilepsy, rheumatoid arthritis, and glaucoma.[78]
Many governments view occupational health as a social challenge and have formed public organizations to ensure the health and safety of workers. Examples of these include the British Health and Safety Executive and in the United States, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, which conducts research on occupational health and safety, and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which handles regulation and policy relating to worker safety and health.[63][64][65]
One of the first bioprospecting groups that attempted to implement the goals and guidelines of the CBD was a collaboration between the pharmaceutical firm Merck & Company and Costa Rica's Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), a private, nonprofit conservation and research group, INBio agreed to provide Merck with a limited number of plants, fungi, and other samples from Costa Rica's protected areas for scientific and commercial evaluation.
Prolonged psychological stress may negatively impact health, and has been cited as a factor in cognitive impairment with aging, depressive illness, and expression of disease.[60] Stress management is the application of methods to either reduce stress or increase tolerance to stress. Relaxation techniques are physical methods used to relieve stress. Psychological methods include cognitive therapy, meditation, and positive thinking, which work by reducing response to stress. Improving relevant skills, such as problem solving and time management skills, reduces uncertainty and builds confidence, which also reduces the reaction to stress-causing situations where those skills are applicable.
Our award-winning support staff, experienced cultivators, and network of healthcare practitioners are here to help remove barriers to medical cannabis. We’re honoured to be part of a movement that’s helping Canadians across the country access their medicine; and as we grow we will continue to provide patients with reliable access to safe, consistent, and effective medical cannabis.
The most pressing need of the hemp industry in North America is for the breeding of more productive oilseed cultivars. At present, mainly European cultivars are available, of which very few are suitable for specialized oilseed production. More importantly, hempseed oil is not competitive, except in the novelty niche market, with the popular food oils. As argued above, to be competitive, hemp should produce approximately 2 t/ha; at present 1 t/ha is considered average to good production. Doubling the productive capacity of a conventional crop would normally be considered impossible, but it needs to be understood just how little hemp has been developed as an oilseed. There may not even be extant land races of the kind of hemp oilseed strains that were once grown in Russia, so that except for a very few very recent oilseed cultivars, there has been virtually no breeding of oilseed hemp. Contrarily, hemp has been selected for fiber to the point that some breeders consider its productivity in this respect has already been maximized. Fiber strains have been selected for low seed production, so that most hemp germplasm has certainly not been selected for oilseed characteristics. By contrast, drug varieties have been selected for very high yield of flowers, and accordingly produce very high yield of seeds. Drug varieties have been observed to produce more than a kilogram of seed per plant, so that a target yield of several tonnes per hectare is conceivable (Watson and Clarke 1997). Of course, the high THC in drug cultivars makes these a difficult source of germplasm. However, wild plants of C. sativa have naturally undergone selection for high seed productivity, and are a particularly important potential source of breeding germplasm.
3. Is the CBD oil sold by Hempworx a bad product? No. To their credit, Hempworx does post third party lab reports posted on its website. Third party lab reports are the only way to really know what’s in the product you are buying. The Hempworx lab reports clearly show the amount of CBD and other cannabinoids including trace amounts of THC in the Hempworx CBD oil tincture. By all accounts, Hempworx CBD oil is of reasonably good quality. However, it’s worth noting that their posted lab reports do not show results of heavy metal, pesticide and residual solvents testing. The omission of these test results is concerning.
The basic commercial options for growing hemp in North America is as a fiber plant, an oilseed crop, or for dual harvest for both seeds and fiber. Judged on experience in Canada to date, the industry is inclined to specialize on either fiber or grain, but not both. Hemp in our opinion is particularly suited to be developed as an oilseed crop in North America. The first and foremost breeding goal is to decrease the price of hempseed by creating more productive cultivars. While the breeding of hemp fiber cultivars has proceeded to the point that only slight improvements can be expected in productivity in the future, the genetic potential of hemp as an oilseed has scarcely been addressed. From the point of view of world markets, concentrating on oilseed hemp makes sense, because Europe has shown only limited interest to date in developing oilseed hemp, whereas a tradition of concentrating on profitable oilseed products is already well established in the US and Canada. Further, China’s supremacy in the production of high-quality hemp textiles at low prices will be very difficult to match, while domestic production of oilseeds can be carried out using technology that is already available. The present productivity of oilseed hemp—about 1 t/ha under good conditions, and occasional reports of 1.5 to 2 t/ha, is not yet sufficient for the crop to become competitive with North America’s major oilseeds. We suggest that an average productivity of 2 t/ha will be necessary to transform hempseed into a major oilseed, and that this breeding goal is achievable. At present, losses of 30% of the seed yields are not uncommon, so that improvements in harvesting technology should also contribute to higher yields. Hemp food products cannot escape their niche market status until the price of hempseed rivals that of other oilseeds, particularly rapeseed, flax, and sunflower. Most hemp breeding that has been conducted to date has been for fiber characteristics, so that there should be considerable improvement possible. The second breeding goal is for larger seeds, as these are more easily shelled. Third is breeding for specific seed components. Notable are the health-promoting gamma-linolenic acid; improving the amino acid spectrum of the protein; and increasing the antioxidant level, which would not only have health benefits but could increase the shelf life of hemp oil and foods.

Cannabidiol is a chemical in the Cannabis sativa plant, also known as marijuana. Over 80 chemicals, known as cannabinoids, have been identified in the Cannabis sativa plant. While delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major active ingredient, cannabidiol makes up about 40% of cannabis extracts and has been studied for many different uses. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), because cannabidiol has been studied as a new drug, products containing cannabidiol are not defined as dietary supplements. But there are still products labeled as dietary supplements on the market that contain cannabidiol. The amount of cannabidiol contained in these products is not always reported accurately on the product label.

Cannabidiol has been found to act as an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain.[30] It has also been found to act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12.[12] Although currently classified as orphan receptors, these receptors are most closely related phylogenetically to the cannabinoid receptors.[12] In addition to orphan receptors, CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist,[31] and this action may be involved in its antidepressant,[32][33] anxiolytic,[33][34] and neuroprotective effects.[35][36] It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well.[37] The pharmacological effects of CBD have additionally been attributed to PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.[7]
And without high-quality trials, experts don’t know how much is best for a given purpose. The staff at Roth’s dispensary told her, “Try some once or twice a day and see what happens.” (Half a dropper’s worth was a good amount for her.) One thing scientists feel confident about is that CBD is not dangerous. It won’t damage vital organs even at doses as high as 5,000 mg a day, Marcu says, and nobody has died from simply overdosing on a cannabis product.
As a result of intensive selection in cultivation, Cannabis exhibits many sexual phenotypes that can be described in terms of the ratio of female to male flowers occurring in the individual, or typical in the cultivar.[28] Dioecious varieties are preferred for drug production, where the female flowers are used. Dioecious varieties are also preferred for textile fiber production, whereas monoecious varieties are preferred for pulp and paper production. It has been suggested that the presence of monoecy can be used to differentiate licit crops of monoecious hemp from illicit drug crops.[22] However, sativa strains often produce monoecious individuals, probably as a result of inbreeding. 

The edible seeds contain about 30 percent oil and are a source of protein, fibre, and magnesium. Shelled hemp seeds, sometimes called hemp hearts, are sold as a health food and may be eaten raw; they are commonly sprinkled on salads or blended with fruit smoothies. Hemp seed milk is used as an alternative to dairy milk in drinks and recipes. The oil obtained from hemp seed can be used to make paints, varnishes, soaps, and edible oil with a low smoke point. Historically, the seed’s chief commercial use has been for caged-bird feed.
"However, it is clear that, even prior to the 2018 Farm Bill, North Carolina was producing hemp flowers legally by licensed growers. The 2018 Farm Bill effectively moved oversight from the DEA to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for hemp and all its derivatives and extracts. At the same time, the law removed CBD that is produced by licensed growers of industrial hemp from the controlled substance list. The USDA has not developed its program yet – the Farm Bill was only signed in December 2018 – so we are still operating our NC Pilot program and licensing farmers under that."
: a nonintoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis and hemp : cannabidiol More than a dozen medical trials in the past decade have shown that treatments containing THC (and some that combine THC with another derivative called cannabidiol, or CBD) not only ease pain in MS patients but also alleviate other problems associated with the disease.— Nathan Seppa Under Leni's Law, named for a child whose daily seizures are mitigated by CBD usage, CBD oils can't contain more than 3 percent THC "relative to CBD." For example if an oil has 10 mg of CBD, it could have no more than 0.3 mg of THC.— Andrew J. Yawn

No, as long as the plant is used correctly then no it’s not a bad thing. I’m sure there’s probably more good capability about that plant that people know or don’t know. No matter how it’s administered, as long as used properly it’s a good thing. It probably has more healing capabilities than people know about and since big Pharma or whoever it is out there discovered this, that’s probably why they made it illegal for all we know. Yes, I know there’s no money in cure which would hurt big Pharma but oh well! If they want to keep us away from the cure and keep us all sick, I say go for it anyway and go for the cure. 

Fiberboard. In North America the use of nonwood fibers in sheet fiberboard (“pressboard” or “composite board”) products is relatively undeveloped. Flax, jute, kenaf, hemp, and wheat straw can be used to make composite board. Wheat straw is the dominant nonwood fiber in such applications. Although it might seem that hemp bast fibers are desirable in composite wood products because of their length and strength, in fact the short fibers of the hurds have been found to produce a superior product (K. Domier, pers. commun.). Experimental production of hemp fiberboard has produced extremely strong material (Fig. 22). The economic viability of such remains to be tested. Molded fiberboard products are commercially viable in Europe (Fig. 23), but their potential in North America remains to be determined.

Then again: Zwagil also says, through his company’s Policies and Procedures (see above section), that you should talk to a lawyer before joining HempWorx as “laws differ according to jurisdiction,” which does not make it sound “100 percent legal.” He also gets the percentages wrong: it’s .3 percent THC, not .03 percent THC, which further supports the notion that perhaps you shouldn’t rely on him regarding cannabis laws.
Hemp can be used as a "mop crop" to clear impurities out of wastewater, such as sewage effluent, excessive phosphorus from chicken litter, or other unwanted substances or chemicals. Additionally, hemp is being used to clean contaminants at the Chernobyl nuclear disaster site, by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation—the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from the soil, water, and air.[46]

Then came World War II. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor shut off foreign supplies of "manila hemp" fiber from the Philippines. The USDA produced a film called "Hemp For Victory" to encourage U.S. farmers to grow hemp for the war effort. The U.S. government formed the War Hemp Industries Department and subsidized hemp cultivation. During the war, U.S. farmers grew about a million acres of hemp across the Midwest as part of that program.
I totally agree. The greed of the pharmaceutical with their lobbyist to stop the government from making it a schedule III drug so much more research can be done. They do not care about the people, just money. We the people must rise up and let our government know, we care more about our friends and family than the money they give, to you congress men/women and senators get, and we VOTE. The only power we have is writing or calling congress men/women and senators, huge rallies and each and every ones VOTE. They would rather stay in office, than even receive big monies from big pharm for their campaigns. VOTES will win over.
The meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the body's ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from time to time by disease. An example of such a definition of health is: "a state characterized by anatomic, physiologic, and psychological integrity; ability to perform personally valued family, work, and community roles; ability to deal with physical, biological, psychological, and social stress".[7] Then in 1948, in a radical departure from previous definitions, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a definition that aimed higher: linking health to well-being, in terms of "physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity".[8] Although this definition was welcomed by some as being innovative, it was also criticized as being vague, excessively broad and was not construed as measurable. For a long time, it was set aside as an impractical ideal and most discussions of health returned to the practicality of the biomedical model.[9]
Deeper pockets are also helping them to dominate CBD products—derived from cannabis but without a high—that are of interest to some of the world’s biggest consumer companies, including... — Carol Ryan, WSJ, "U.S. Cannabis Law Is Helping Canada Make Hay," 27 Feb. 2019 Meanwhile, 10 states and Washington, DC, have legalized the intoxicating form of cannabis for recreational purposes, while 32 states have for medical uses. — German Lopez, Vox, "Trump and Congress just legalized hemp," 20 Dec. 2018 The state’s Cannabis Control Commission has since granted one dispensary a provisional retail license, and another company licenses to grow and transport non-medical cannabis. — Matthew Ormseth, courant.com, "U.S. Attorney in Massachusetts Says Opioids, Not Marijuana, A Priority As State Readies Retail Market," 10 July 2018 The city's mayor Alex Morse believes Holyoke is the ideal location for the cannabis industry in Massachusetts -- and possibly the country. — CBS News, "Holyoke, Massachusetts, is ready to welcome the marijuana industry with open arms," 30 June 2018 Rat offspring exposed to THC — tetrahydrocannabinol, the chief psychoactive ingredient in cannabis — and others that were not had to learn how to press one of two levers to get a sugar pellet reward. — Erik Lacitis, The Seattle Times, "‘Something wasn’t clicking’: WSU study shows offspring of pregnant rats exposed to THC have impaired development," 20 Nov. 2018 It's also derived from cannabidiol (CBD), one of the major compounds found in cannabis. — Sarah Jacoby, SELF, "Updated: What You Need to Know About Epidiolex, the First FDA-Approved Drug Made From Cannabis," 1 Nov. 2018 Attendees must bring their own cannabis, but smoking, edibles, and vaping are all encouraged as part of the creative process and the social experience. — Sarah Shemkus, BostonGlobe.com, "5 marijuana-infused things to do in New England," 21 June 2018 But Salmonella can also turn up in unexpected places — like in tahini, or on cantaloupes, or even drugs like cannabis and kratom. — Rachel Becker, The Verge, "Machine learning could help figure out what pooped on your produce," 12 Dec. 2018
Most pro-hemp initiatives in the United States are now focused on defining and distinguishing between industrial hemp and marijuana. Some pro-hemp supporters would like to move the control of U.S. hemp production from the DEA to the USDA. Proponents of legalizing hemp also argue that new technology to distinguish THC levels both in the field and from the air will allow for adequate production enforcement.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[42] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[43] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[44] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[45] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[46][47][48]
With respect to fiber, a “composite” is often defined as a material consisting of 30%–70% fiber and 70%–30% matrix (Bolton 1995). However, in North America particleboards and fiberboards, which generally contain less than 10% adhesive or matrix, are sometimes referred to as composites. This section addresses plastic-type composites. In plastics, fibers are introduced to improve physical properties such as stiffness, impact resistance, bending and tensile strength. Man-made fibers of glass, kevlar and carbon are most commonly used today, but plant fibers offer considerable cost savings along with comparable strength properties.
Buying online is less reliable still because there’s no regulation or standardization. What you see on the label may not be what you are getting. A 2017 study in JAMA found that of the 84 CBD products researchers bought online, 43% had more CBD than indicated, while 26% had less, and some had unexpected THC. “There’s a 75% chance of getting a product where the CBD is mislabeled,” says Marcu, one of the study’s coauthors.
CBD(Cannabidiol) is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “high”. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive (as opposed to a THC dominant strain) makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and many other conditions without feelings of lethargy or dysphoria. Our full spectrum CBD Oil is CBD-dominant! 

CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways they impact us is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” - so named because of their similarity to the compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of a regulatory system called the “endocannabinoid system”.
Several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for nausea and vomiting in the advanced stages of illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. Dronabinol (tetrahydrocannabinol) has been available by prescription for more than a decade in the USA. Other therapeutic uses of cannabinoids are being demonstrated by controlled studies, including treatment of asthma and glaucoma, as an antidepressant, appetite stimulant, anticonvulsant and anti-spasmodic, research in this area should continue. For example, more basic research on the central and peripheral mechanisms of the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal function may improve the ability to alleviate nausea and emesis. More research is needed on the basic neuropharmacology of THC and other cannabinoids so that better therapeutic agents can be found.
My husband and I have been using/selling Hempworx for 3 months with great relief from arthritis pain and depression. However, I am looking elsewhere to be a retailer. The company has grown too fast and the owners cannot keep up. The bottling was terrible and leaking and and shipping expensive and delayed sometimes weeks. They corrected their bottling after I lost 4 bottles to leakage in transit (they replaced ONE). You get NO discount as a dealer on your orders and it is a total pyramid scheme that I detest. Work my ass off for some Liberal to get rich. The owner states opposition to our President and that alone turns my stomach. I am OUT asap.
They allege you can earn up to seven figures per month depending on your rank. But if you look on page 12 of their terms and conditions, they say that any amounts reflected on their website is for demonstration purposes only and does not mean anything in terms of earning commissions. Seems like they are throwing these huge numbers around to try and get you to join.
Hempworx Distributors can sell all of the other My Daily Choice products worldwide. If you like those products you may want to get started that way.  This was the last PDF Hempworx distributed. If you scroll down the PDF file, near the end, you will see the timetable for reentering the EU, Canada, and Ghana. Hempworx missed the July target date to begin shipping to Canada.
Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
Until recently, Hempworx had a page of “testimonials” on their corporate website. It’s since been removed. Likely because the FDA doesn’t look kindly on fake testimonials. Most people assume that testimonials are from satisfied customers who have no affiliation with Hempworx. But this was not the case. The “testimonials” on their website were all from high-ranking affiliates who sell Hempworx. So in reality, these are hardly impartial reviews.
Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.[11][12] In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued,[13] featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past. The impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years.[14]
These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Most work-place drug screens and tests target delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and do not detect the presence of Cannabidiol (CBD) or other legal natural hemp based constituents. Even though our products contain less than .3% THC by dry weight (Federal Legal Limit), studies have shown that ingesting Full Spectrum CBD can cause confirmed positive results when screening urine and blood specimens. Accordingly, if you are subject to any form of employment drug testing or screening, we recommend (as does the United States Armed Services) that you DO NOT take our products. Before taking our products, consult with your healthcare practitioner, drug screening testing company or employer. This website requires you to also be at least 18 years or older to purchase our products.

^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.


The word cannabis is from Greek κάνναβις (kánnabis) (see Latin cannabis),[135] which was originally Scythian or Thracian.[136] It is related to the Persian kanab, the English canvas and possibly even to the English hemp (Old English hænep).[136] In modern Hebrew, קַנַּבּוֹס qannabōs (modern pronunciation: [kanaˈbos]) is used but there are those who have theorized that it was referred to in antiquity as קני בושם q'nei bosem, a component of the biblical anointing oil.[137][138] Old Akkadian qunnabtu, Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian qunnabu were used to refer to the plant meaning "a way to produce smoke".[139][140][141]
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Molecular analytical techniques developed in the late 20th century are being applied to questions of taxonomic classification. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes.[74][75][25][76][77] Dutch Cannabis researcher E.P.M. de Meijer and coworkers described some of their RAPD studies as showing an "extremely high" degree of genetic polymorphism between and within populations, suggesting a high degree of potential variation for selection, even in heavily selected hemp cultivars.[37] They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se.
^ A 2016 review also found a statistically significant increase in crash risk associated with marijuana use, but noted that this risk was "of low to medium magnitude."[74] The increase in risk of motor vehicle crash for cannabis use is between 2 and 3 times relative to baseline, whereas that for comparable doses of alcohol is between 6 and 15 times.[75]
The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.
There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD. Whereas most drug strains contain primarily THC and little or no CBD, fiber and oilseed strains primarily contain CBD and very little THC. CBD can be converted to THC by acid catalyzed cyclization, and so could serve as a starting material for manufacturing THC. In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains.
Some immediate undesired side effects include a decrease in short-term memory, dry mouth, impaired motor skills and reddening of the eyes.[50] Aside from a subjective change in perception and mood, the most common short-term physical and neurological effects include increased heart rate, increased appetite and consumption of food, lowered blood pressure, impairment of short-term and working memory,[51][52] psychomotor coordination, and concentration.
Based on studies of sex reversal in hemp, it was first reported by K. Hirata in 1924 that an XY sex-determination system is present.[26] At the time, the XY system was the only known system of sex determination. The X:A system was first described in Drosophila spp in 1925.[29] Soon thereafter, Schaffner disputed Hirata's interpretation,[30] and published results from his own studies of sex reversal in hemp, concluding that an X:A system was in use and that furthermore sex was strongly influenced by environmental conditions.[27]
What makes CBD so appealing is that it’s non-intoxicating, so it won’t get you high, though it “is technically psychoactive, because it can influence things like anxiety,” Jikomes said. Although much of the marketing blitz around CBD centers on the fact that you can take it without getting stoned, there isn’t much research looking at the effects of CBD when used in isolation, with a couple of exceptions. One is the use of CBD to treat seizures: CBD is the active ingredient in the only cannabis product that the Food and Drug Administration has signed off on — a drug called Epidiolex, which is approved for treating two rare forms of epilepsy. Animal models and a few human studies suggest that CBD can help with anxiety, but those are the only conditions with much research on CBD in isolation.
A colleague of Mechoulam’s, Marc Feldman at Imperial College, London, tested CBD on mice that had a version of rheumatoid arthritis. He found that CBD reduced the mice’s inflammation by 50% at the right dosage. Cardiologists working with the mice at Hebrew University have found that a dosage of CBD immediately following a heart attack can reduce infarct size by about 66%.
Essential (volatile) oil in hemp is quite different from hempseed oil. Examples of commercial essential oil product products are shown in Fig. 42. The essential oil is a mixture of volatile compounds, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and other terpenoid-like compounds that are manufactured in the same epidermal glands in which the resin of Cannabis is synthesized (Meier and Mediavilla 1998). Yields are very small—about 10 L/ha (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997), so essential oil of C. sativa is expensive, and today is simply a novelty. Essential oil of different strains varies considerably in odor, and this may have economic importance in imparting a scent to cosmetics, shampoos, soaps, creams, oils, perfumes, and foodstuffs. Switzerland has been a center for the production of essential oil for the commercial market. Narcotic strains tend to be more attractive in odor than fiber strains, and because they produce much higher numbers of flowers than fiber strains, and the (female) floral parts provide most of the essential oil, narcotic strains are naturally adapted to essential oil production. Switzerland has permitted strains with higher THC content to be grown than is allowed in other parts of the world, giving the country an advantage with respect to the essential oil market. However, essential oil in the marketplace has often been produced from low-THC Cannabis, and the THC content of essential oil obtained by steam distillation can be quite low, producing a product satisfying the needs for very low THC levels in food and other commercial goods. The composition of extracted essential oil is quite different from the volatiles released around the fresh plant (particularly limonene and alpha-pinene), so that a pleasant odor of the living plant is not necessarily indicative of a pleasant-smelling essential oil. Essential oil has been produced in Canada by Gen-X Research Inc., Regina. The world market for hemp essential oil is very limited at present, and probably also has limited growth potential.
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