Nabiximols (brand name Sativex) is a patented medicine containing CBD and THC in equal proportions. The drug was approved by Health Canada in 2005 for prescription to treat central neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis, and in 2007 for cancer related pain.[39][40] In New Zealand Sativex® is approved for use as an add-on treatment for symptom improvement in patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy.[41]
While marijuana cultivation requires ample spacing to reduce the risk of mold or bacteria, hemp can be planted more densely. Most marijuana crops are planted at one (1) plant per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants that are grown for hemp oil are planted at roughly 40 to 60 plants per four (4) square feet. Hemp plants grown for fiber are even more densely planted at a rate of about 100 to 120 plants per four (4) square feet.
Given the uncertainties and handicaps associated with hemp, it is fortunate that there are compensating factors. As noted, as a crop hemp offers some real environmental advantages, particularly with regard to the limited needs for herbicides and pesticides. Hemp is therefore pre-adapted to organic agriculture, and accordingly to the growing market for products associated with environmentally-friendly, sustainable production. Hemp products are an advertiser’s dream, lending themselves to hyperbole (“healthiest salad oil in the world,” “toughest jeans on the market”). While the narcotics image of C. sativa is often disadvantageous, advertisers who choose to play up this association do so knowing that it will attract a segment of the consuming population. In general, the novelty of hemp means that many consumers are willing to pay a premium price. It might also be said that those who have entered the hemp industry have tended to be very highly motivated, resourceful, and industrious, qualities that have been needed in the face of rather formidable obstacles to progress.
Another notable study conducted by Mechoulam was done on mice bred to have a version of type-1 diabetes. The diabetes was designed to manifest right around 14 weeks, so the mice were treated with CBD for the first 7 weeks of their life and then again in another 7 weeks. He concluded that only 30% had developed diabetes compared to the 90-100% given the placebo.
CBD Isolate is the purest supplement available. It’s a 99% pure CBD supplement derived from hemp oil. Despite its concentration, CBD isolate effects are similar to other CBD concentrates, and it can be used in a variety of ways. It can be consumed itself, added to foods and beverages, or vaporized. You can also add it to other CBD products to increase their potency.
The confusion between industrial hemp and marijuana is based on the visual similarities of widely differentiated varieties of plants. By definition, industrial hemp is high in fiber and low in active tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana that makes some cannabis varieties a valued drug. Canada and the European Union maintain this distinction by strictly regulating the THC levels of industrial hemp, requiring it to be less than 0.3 percent, compared to THC levels of between 3 to 30 percent in marijuana.
HempWorx CBD products are made with Certified Organic Hemp grown in Kentucky and are 100% free of any synthetic or artificial ingredients. We have 80% purity levels whereas our competitors have 15-40%. Everything is tested in an FDA Approved facility and our products contain less than .03% THC. We also carry a THC Free CBD Oil for those who have to pass a drug test for their job. Our farms are 100% compliant and our products meet the Federal Legal Limit.
Yes, with some caveats.  CBD and CBDa is legal in most states of the United States as long as it comes along with no more than 0.03% thc.  CBD all by itself, is pretty much legal everywhere.  However, you could still run into legal problems if you have a cop or court which is hell-bent on charging people with violation of marijuana laws or even laws about where you can buy non-psychoactive hemp.  This is rare but has happened on occasion.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant. As we’ve discovered more about the human species as well as the plants that we’ve learned of the immense health value that CBD brings to the table. It has quickly become a staple supplement for millions who seek a natural alternative to dangerous pharmaceuticals, alien to nature’s perfect remedies.

Returning to our CBD article, Dr. Jean Talleyrand, founder and Chief Medical Officer of MediCann in Oakland, California, and co-founder and Chief Medical Officer of The Clinical Endocannabinoid System Consortium in San Diego, California, emphasizes that any “product should be evaluated for its packaging, shelf life, and variance,” as well as third-party testing, which will show strength and purity.

Our CBD Oil is trusted by health professionals and doctors worldwide. These products are not only made and sold in USA, they have also picked up quite a following HempWorx CBD Oil products are backed by strict testing standards of every batch. We maintains a standard of Non-GMO, natural, organic and pure, safe and effective to use. We post our batch testing right on the main website. Click the Order Here to go to place orders for HempWorx 500 and find out more!
Since the late 1970s, the federal Healthy People Initiative has been a visible component of the United States’ approach to improving population health.[11][12] In each decade, a new version of Healthy People is issued,[13] featuring updated goals and identifying topic areas and quantifiable objectives for health improvement during the succeeding ten years, with assessment at that point of progress or lack thereof. Progress has been limited to many objectives, leading to concerns about the effectiveness of Healthy People in shaping outcomes in the context of a decentralized and uncoordinated US health system. Healthy People 2020 gives more prominence to health promotion and preventive approaches and adds a substantive focus on the importance of addressing social determinants of health. A new expanded digital interface facilitates use and dissemination rather than bulky printed books as produced in the past. The impact of these changes to Healthy People will be determined in the coming years.[14]
Cannabis sativa L. has been selectively bred for recreational uses to obtain the maximum “high”, so the level of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been increased very much (up to 20-25%) and, in upping the potency through selective breeding, CBD has been selectively eliminated from recreational varieties or, eventually, it is rarely found in specific varieties. CBD is often found in hemp – in varieties used to produce fiber and seeds. But the combination of CBD/THC in cannabis seem to be beneficial for medical use.

^ Jump up to: a b c Whiting, PF; Wolff, RF; Deshpande, S; Di Nisio, M; Duffy, S; Hernandez, AV; Keurentjes, JC; Lang, S; Misso, K; Ryder, S; Schmidlkofer, S; Westwood, M; Kleijnen, J (23 June 2015). "Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis" (PDF). JAMA. 313 (24): 2456–2473. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6358. hdl:10757/558499. PMID 26103030. 

More recent studies have focused on the mechanisms behind the schizophrenia–cannabis interaction. Epstein and Kumra (2014) tested the effect of cannabis on executive control of attention and cognitive function by comparing scores on the Attention Network Test among people with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and cannabis use disorder, only EOS, only cannabis use disorder, and controls. They found that the first group in particular had less efficient executive control of attention compared with those who had only EOS. They also found a smaller right caudal anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with EOS and cannabis use disorder. However, it is presently unclear whether this means that the smaller cortex surface leads to deficits in self-regulation and heavy cannabis use or if the direction of causation is in the opposite direction. More recent studies have suggested gene–environment correlation between cannabis use and schizophrenia in that the increased risk of schizophrenia after heavy and consistent cannabis use may be moderated by a shared gene that may explain part of the association (Power et al., 2014).

Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets.[11] The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.
The woody core (hurds, sometimes called shives) of hemp makes remarkably good animal bedding (Fig. 28, 29). The hurds are sometimes molded into small pellets for bedding applications (Fig. 30). Such appears to be unsurpassed for horse bedding, and also make an excellent litter for cats and other pets (Fig. 31). The hurds can absorb up to five times their weight in moisture (typically 50% higher than wood shavings), do not produce dust (following initial dust removal), and are easily composted. Hemp bedding is especially suited to horses allergic to straw. In Europe, the animal bedding market is not considered important (Karus et al. 2000), but in North America there are insufficient hemp hurds available to meet market demand.
While most supplements have a single recommended dose, CBD is different. The amount of CBD you take depends on your doctor’s recommendations and your own research into how CBD will work for your unique needs. In general, it’s smart to start with a medium dose of CBD. This way, you can increase or decrease the dose as needed. In addition, it’s recommended to start with one half ML (half a dropper) of CBD oil, because you can always take more if needed.
Hemp, (Cannabis sativa), also called industrial hemp, plant of the family Cannabaceae cultivated for its fibre (bast fibre) or its edible seeds. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. Although all three products—hemp, marijuana, and hashish—contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a compound that produces psychoactive effects in humans, the variety of cannabis cultivated for hemp has only small amounts of THC relative to that grown for the production of marijuana or hashish.

While CBD still faces legal hurdles to go mainstream, beverage giants, food companies and others have begun to take serious interest in the roughly $2 billion U.S. market. Tilray Inc. TLRY, -0.49%  announced a partnership with Anheuser-Busch InBev SA BUD, +0.04%  this week to research marijuana-based beverages, and Constellation Brands Inc. STZ, +1.10%   has invested heavily in pot producer Canopy Growth Corp. Other large companies, like Molson Coors Brewing Co. TAP, +0.63%  , have invested in research, and Coca-Cola Co. KO, +0.37%  and others have at least considered making a play for the space.
CBD does not appear to have any psychotropic ("high") effects such as those caused by ∆9-THC in marijuana, but may have anti-anxiety and anti-psychotic effects.[10] As the legal landscape and understanding about the differences in medical cannabinoids unfolds, experts are working to distinguish "medical marijuana" (with varying degrees of psychotropic effects and deficits in executive function) – from "medical CBD therapies” which would commonly present as having a reduced or non-psychoactive side-effect profile.[10][59]
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 24 smokers were randomly chosen to receive either an inhaler of CBD oil or a placebo. Participants were asked to take a puff every time they had an urge to puff a cigarette. Over the week, those with placebo inhalers saw no change in their total number of cigarettes consumed, while those who were taking CBD saw a nearly 40 percent drop in their intake. Using the inhaler decreased the number of cigarettes without increasing their craving for nicotine, pointing towards a purpose for Cannabidiol in the withdrawal process.
Research suggests that CBD may exert some of its pharmacological action through its inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which may in turn increase the levels of endocannabinoids, such as anandamide, produced by the body.[7] It has also been speculated that some of the metabolites of CBD have pharmacological effects that contribute to the biological activity of CBD.[38]
Preliminary research indicates that cannabidiol may reduce adverse effects of THC, particularly those causing intoxication and sedation, but only at high doses.[21] Safety studies of cannabidiol showed it is well-tolerated, but may cause tiredness, diarrhea, or changes in appetite as common adverse effects.[22] Epidiolex documentation lists sleepiness, insomnia and poor quality sleep, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue.[2]

Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg[78] at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis.[53] The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis.[56] In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa.[79] Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa.[80] Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.

CBD(Cannabidiol) is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “high”. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive (as opposed to a THC dominant strain) makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and many other conditions without feelings of lethargy or dysphoria. Our full spectrum CBD Oil is CBD-dominant!


^ Russo, E. B.; Jiang, H.-E.; Li, X.; Sutton, A.; Carboni, A.; Del Bianco, F.; Mandolino, G.; Potter, D. J.; Zhao, Y.-X.; Bera, S.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Lü, E.-G.; Ferguson, D. K.; Hueber, F.; Zhao, L.-C.; Liu, C.-J.; Wang, Y.-F.; Li, C.-S. (2008). "Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis from Central Asia". Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (15): 4171–82. doi:10.1093/jxb/ern260. PMC 2639026. PMID 19036842.
Cultivated industrial hemp plants usually consist of a spindly main stalk covered with leaves. Considered a low-maintenance crop, hemp plants typically reach between 6 to 15 feet in height. Depending on the purpose, variety and climatic conditions, the period between planting and harvesting ranges from 70 to 140 days. One acre of hemp can yield an average of 700 pounds of grain, which in turn can be pressed into about 22 gallons of oil and 530 pounds of meal. The same acre will also produce an average of 5,300 pounds of straw, which can be transformed into approximately 1,300 pounds of fiber.
Peltz will be granted options to purchase 19.9 million common shares in the company at C$10.34 ($7.74) a share. The options will vest over a four-year period on a quarterly basis, and the vesting may accelerate if the company meet certain goals, including the consummation of certain defined transactions and the share price being at least at C$31.02 and C$41.36 for a specified number of trading days.
Common treatments for fibromyalgia are anti-inflammatory medications, opioid pain medications, and corticosteroids. A 2011 study that focused on CBD treatment for fibromyalgia produced very promising results for future uses in treatment. Half of the 56 participants used Cannabidiol, while the other half used traditional methods to treat their condition. Those that used cannabis saw a great reduction in their symptoms and pain, while those using traditional methods didn’t see much of an improvement.
The plant is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber. To satisfy the UN Narcotics Convention, some cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive constituent. Some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (a cannabinoid), the strength of which is enhanced by curing the flowers. Various compounds, including hashish and hash oil, are extracted from the plant.[8]
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Mental illness is described as 'the spectrum of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral conditions that interfere with social and emotional well-being and the lives and productivity of people. Having a mental illness can seriously impair, temporarily or permanently, the mental functioning of a person. Other terms include: 'mental health problem', 'illness', 'disorder', 'dysfunction'.[37]
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[52] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[53] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[54] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[55] In February 2019, the New York City Department of Health announced plans to fine restaurants that sell food or drinks containing CBD, beginning in October 2019.[56]
Hi, I'm Shane and welcome to HempCaptain.com. Here you will find honest and accurate information about CBDs, medical marijuana, hemp, and much more. I am passionate about using CBDs to enhance and improve life, and it is my goal to share the most up-to-date information and research with our readers. Visit our about page to learn more about me and the HempCaptain mission. Thanks for visiting!
CBD interacts with the body through the endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) or endocannabinoid system. First discovered in the late 1980’s, the endocannabinoid system regulates the body’s homeostasis, or general state of balance, impacting such functions as mood, sleep, appetite, hormone regulation, and pain and immune response. Like an acrobat on a highwire, as the environment around us impacts our normal balance, the endocannabinoid system “corrects” by mediating our body’s reaction to keep us level.
Until very recently, the most convincing evidence that cannabis use precipitates schizophrenia came from a 15-year prospective study of cannabis use and schizophrenia in 50 465 Swedish conscripts (Andreasson et al., 1987). This study investigated the relationship between self-reported cannabis use at age 18 and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia in the Swedish psychiatric case register during the next 15 years. Andreasson and colleagues found a dose–response relationship between the risk of schizophrenia and the number of times cannabis had been used by age 18 (1.3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–10 times, 3 times higher for those who had used cannabis 1–50 times, and 6 times higher for those who had used cannabis more than 50 times). These risks were reduced after statistical adjustment for potentially confounding variables (a psychiatric diagnosis at age 18, and parental divorce), but the relationships remained statistically significant.

Finally, the entire marijuana flower structure is coated with resinous crystals called trichomes. Trichomes are translucent, mushroom-like glands that form on the entire flowering structure and even the stems of the marijuana plant. These bulb-shaped glands secrete the rich, aromatic essential oils that give cannabis its smells and flavors. Trichomes also contain cannabinoids.
CBD Isolate is CBD in its purest form. It is a crystalline CBD that contains pure CBD and CBD alone — nothing else! That’s why it’s called an isolate — it is isolated away from all the other things that the marijuana family usually contains. Isolating the cannabinoid CBD, as separate from all other cannabinoids in the hemp or cannabis plant, is what produces CBD isolate. It’s just pure CBD that you can then use for a variety of other purposes or forms.
The Duquenois–Levine test is commonly used as a screening test in the field, but it cannot definitively confirm the presence of cannabis, as a large range of substances have been shown to give false positives.[152] Despite this, it is common in the United States for prosecutors to seek plea bargains on the basis of positive D–L tests, claiming them to be conclusive, or even to seek conviction without the use of gas chromatography confirmation, which can only be done in the lab.[153] In 2011, researchers at John Jay College of Criminal Justice reported that dietary zinc supplements can mask the presence of THC and other drugs in urine.[154] However, a 2013 study conducted by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine refute the possibility of self-administered zinc producing false-negative urine drug tests.[155]
One claim is that Hearst believed[dubious – discuss] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator which he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper.[128][131] Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production.[132][128]
Modern decorticating techniques employ steam explosion (treating the fibers with steam through a pressurized chamber) and ultrasonic breaking (breaking down fibers using ultrasonic waves) to maintain the integrity of the fibers throughout the process. These techniques are not as harsh on the stalks and allow processors to use the fibers on cotton and wool processing machinery.
Hemp fibers are primarily used for textiles, paper, building materials, and other industrial products. Hurds, or shives, are short woody hemp fibers typically found inside the stalk. They’re used to make hempcrete, bedding materials, absorbents, particle board, ceiling panels, compost, and other industrial products. Bast fibers make up the outer portion of the stalk and are typically split into three categories — primary, or line fiber, secondary, and the tow. They are categorized according to their cell strength and cell wall thickness, which will determine the fiber’s strength, durability, and ultimately what the it can be used for.
In recent months, both cities and states have moved to control how CBD is sold. Maine and New York City have moved to crack down on edible products containing CBD. New York’s health department confirmed to the New York Times that it has started ordering restaurants to stop selling CBD-laced food because it has not been “deemed safe as a food additive.”

Cannabis is indigenous to Central Asia[192] and the Indian subcontinent,[193] and its use for fabric and rope dates back to the Neolithic age in China and Japan.[194][195] It is unclear when cannabis first became known for its psychoactive properties; some scholars suggest that the ancient Indian drug soma, mentioned in the Vedas, was cannabis, although this theory is disputed.[196]
Not true. A family member of mine also failed a drug test using Hempworx that was supposedly zero THC. They contacted their rep who refused to respond to calls or texts. So then they went straight to the company who said they were sorry but nothing they could do because supposedly their lab is different than the one that did the drug test??? What a scam.
I’ve done a little research on the hemp and cannabis, and it looks to me like they’re both supposed to be medicine plants. From what I learned about the plants, they’ve been known to actually have multiple health benefits and even save lives of fourth stage cancer patients, sending the cancer into remission and therefore saving the patient lives. Banning this medicine plant has actually caused the deaths of many people who could have otherwise been saved by this plant. No wonder people are getting it other ways, I don’t blame them as long as it’s strictly for medical purposes. I even heard of a case where one child’s seizures were so bad they had to end up moving to Colorado as a last resort to save that little girl’s life by giving her cannabis because no other medicine worked for her.

In 1976, Canadian botanist Ernest Small[66] and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. sativa L. subsp. sativa, and C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) Small & Cronq.[62] The authors hypothesized that the two subspecies diverged primarily as a result of human selection; C. sativa subsp. sativa was presumably selected for traits that enhance fiber or seed production, whereas C. sativa subsp. indica was primarily selected for drug production. Within these two subspecies, Small and Cronquist described C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vav. as a wild or escaped variety of low-intoxicant Cannabis, and C. sativa subsp. indica var. kafiristanica (Vav.) Small & Cronq. as a wild or escaped variety of the high-intoxicant type. This classification was based on several factors including interfertility, chromosome uniformity, chemotype, and numerical analysis of phenotypic characters.[52][62][67]
Dehulled (i.e. hulled) hemp seed is a very recent phenomenon, first produced in quantity in Europe. Hemp seeds have been used as food since ancient times, but generally the whole seed, including the hull, was eaten. Hemp seed was a grain used in ancient China, although there has been only minor direct use of hemp seed as food by humans. In the past, hemp seed has generally been a food of the lower classes, or a famine food. Peanut-butter type preparations have been produced from hemp seed in Europe for centuries, but were rather gritty since technology for removing the hulls was rudimentary. Modern seed dehulling using mechanical separation produces a smooth, white, gritless hemp seed meal that needs no additional treatment before it is consumed. It is important to understand, therefore, that the quality of modern hemp seed for human consumption far exceeds anything produced historically. This seed meal should be distinguished from the protein-rich, oil-poor seed cake remaining after oil has been expressed, that is used for livestock feed. The seed cake is also referred to as “seed meal,” and has proven to be excellent for animals (Mustafa et al. 1999).
^ Jump up to: a b c d Campos AC, Moreira FA, Gomes FV, Del Bel EA, Guimarães FS (December 2012). "Multiple mechanisms involved in the large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences (Review). 367 (1607): 3364–78. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0389. PMC 3481531. PMID 23108553.
But be wary of the products you buy and do your research. Some cannabis products work while many don’t, mainly due to lack of regulatory testing from the powers that be and quality control within companies, which is apparently common in the cannabis industry. Your best bet to avoid buying bogus products is to purchase your goods in states where cannabis is legal—because certain systems, standards, and protocols have already been put in place (such as seed-to-sale tracking).

I can’t disagree more with attacking “Big Pharma” or Trump with regards to fixing this problem! Screw the political affiliations for now, let’s change the whole Schedule 1 nightmare. We’re steeped in technology and we have insanely archaic drug laws. Worse, our gov then pressures the countries we give money to (which is all of them) to follow suit by adopting our effed up way. Schedule 1 needs to be dismantled. The research can’t be done on anything listed with very few exceptions. There’s other Sched.1 drugs that need to be available for research by legitimate people, there’s lots of exciting research in psychedelics that’s stalled by archaic laws. That part might just require big pharma to help.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the nettle (Urticaceae) or mulberry (Moraceae) family, and later, along with the genus Humulus (hops), in a separate family, the hemp family (Cannabaceae sensu stricto).[45] Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former family Celtidaceae, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae sensu lato.[46][47]
^ Jump up to: a b Weinstein A, Livny A, Weizman A (2016). "Brain Imaging Studies on the Cognitive, Pharmacological and Neurobiological Effects of Cannabis in Humans: Evidence from Studies of Adult Users". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 22 (42): 6366–6379. doi:10.2174/1381612822666160822151323. PMID 27549374. 1)The studies reviewed so far demonstrated that chronic cannabis use has been associated with a volume reduction of the hippocampus...3)The overall conclusion arising from these studies is that recent cannabis users may experience subtle neurophysiological deficits while performing on working memory tasks, and that they compensate for these deficits by "working harder" by using additional brain regions to meet the demands of the task.
In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient.[19] In the U.S., imported hemp can be used legally in food products and, as of 2000, was typically sold in health food stores or through mail order.[16]
The company's Live Oxygen line includes: The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Cleanser that gentle daily cleanses; The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Toner that hydrates the skin and balances oil, while minimizing pores; The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Facial Lotion that acts like a light daily moisturizer; As well as The CBD Bio Tech Live Oxygen Cream that provides a protective layer over the skin.
Hemp is plagued by bird predation, which take a heavy toll on seed production. The seeds are well known to provide extremely nutritious food for both wild birds and domestic fowl. Hunters and birdwatchers who discover wild patches of hemp often keep this information secret, knowing that the area will be a magnet for birds in the fall when seed maturation occurs. Increasingly in North America, plants are being established to provide habitat and food for wildlife. Hemp is not an aggressive weed, and certainly has great potential for being used as a wildlife plant. Of course, current conditions forbid such usage in North America.

During this time, both the FDA announced that it had approved the “first drug containing cannabidiol” for epilepsy and a spokeswoman for the DEA, commenting generally on the agency’s reported seizure of hemp destined for a CBD oil manufacturer in North Carolina, said that “as far as the federal government is concerned, CBD oil is illegal.” That’s two federal agencies that both have the word “drug” in their names appearing to contradict each other, mere weeks apart. So suffice to say, it’s cloudier than a Cheech and Chong cast party right now.

Cannabis is used in three main forms: marijuana, hashish and hash oil. Marijuana is made from dried flowers and leaves of the cannabis plant. It is the least potent of all the cannabis products and is usually smoked or made into edible products like cookies or brownies (see Factsheet: Marijuana Edibles). Hashish is made from the resin (a secreted gum) of the cannabis plant. It is dried and pressed into small blocks and smoked. It can also be added to food and eaten. Hash oil, the most potent cannabis product, is a thick oil obtained from hashish. It is also smoked.
After the Restoration of Independence in 1640, in order to recover the ailing Portuguese naval fleet, were encouraged its cultivation as the Royal Decree of D. John IV in 1656. At that time its cultivation was carried out in Trás-os-Montes, Zone Tower Moncorvo, more precisely in Vilariça Valley, fertile land for any crop irrigation, and a very large area, flat and very fertile culture still wide until the last century grew up tobacco, a plant that needs a large space to expand and grow, the area lies in the valley of Serra de Bornes.[citation needed]

Last year, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine released a nearly 500-page report on the health effects of cannabis and cannabinoids. A committee of 16 experts from a variety of scientific and medical fields analyzed the available evidence — more than 10,000 scientific abstracts in all. Because so few studies examine the effects of CBD on its own, the panel did not issue any findings about CBD specifically, but it did reach some conclusions about cannabis and cannabinoids more generally. The researchers determined that there is “conclusive or substantial evidence” supporting the use of cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic pain in adults, multiple sclerosis-related spasticity (a kind of stiffness and muscle spasms), and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The committee also found “moderate” evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids can reduce sleep disturbances in people with obstructive sleep apnea, fibromyalgia, chronic pain and multiple sclerosis, as well as “limited” evidence that these substances can improve symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome, increase appetite and stem weight loss in people with HIV/AIDs, and improve symptoms of PTSD and anxiety.
I’m an MS Warrior and I use and LOVE the pain relief rub as well as the Cinnamon CBD oil. My Dad has told me he feels 20 again. I’m sticking with what works for us and that’s HempWorx! I don’t love it because I sell it, I sell it because I love it. I started as a customer and moved to the other side because I work from home and why not since I use the stuff anyways! CannaBossBabe and not ashamed of that. 🙂
There is some speculation that George Washington smoked the flower of the cannabis plant in order to achieve a recreational high ("Like all farmers, Washington probably sampled the quality and potency of what he grew, and he may have used this hemp to treat his chronic tooth aches"),[56] but there is no evidence in any of his writings that he grew hemp for anything other than industrial purposes. It is sometimes supposed that an excerpt from Washington's diary, which reads "Began to seperate [sic] the Male from the Female hemp at Do.&—rather too late" is evidence that he was trying to grow female plants for the THC found in the flowers. However, the editorial remark accompanying the diary states that "This may arise from their [the male] being coarser, and the stalks larger"[122] In subsequent days, he describes soaking the hemp[123] (to make the fibers usable) and harvesting the seeds,[124] suggesting that he was growing hemp for industrial purposes, not recreational.
This is a huge, HUGE step for N.C. First of all farmers can FINALLY make money off land that has grown tobacco for generations. FINALLY doubter I finding out there are many uses for the plant. Perhaps one of the biggest things is the impact on the environment. Most products, if not all, are biodegradable. Also, a huge factor is that in the field of medicine. Will this lead to medical and/or recreational marijuana? Time will tell. As for me, I quit smoking it 20 years ago. I do, however, believe any and all forms of cannabis should and will be made legal. Legal, if for no other reason, so we can stop making people who smoke it into criminals, filling up our jails and prisons. This will free up police, etc.. to finding real criminals. Last, but defiantly not least, IMHO, there is the N.C. aspect. That being I thought we would never, EVER see this time in N.C. Even if it is just industrial hemp for now, it’s a start. Who knows, in the not too distant future, legislatures and law enforcement will become open minded enough to legalize all forms of cannabis, HOPEFULLY. With the youth of these times moving into the right fields, and of course us boomers weighing in, it won’t be too long. AMEN
Cannabidiol can be taken into the body in multiple ways, including by inhalation of cannabis smoke or vapor, as an aerosol spray into the cheek, and by mouth. It may be supplied as CBD oil containing only CBD as the active ingredient (no added tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] or terpenes), a full-plant CBD-dominant hemp extract oil, capsules, dried cannabis, or as a prescription liquid solution.[2] CBD does not have the same psychoactivity as THC,[9][10] and may affect the actions of THC.[7][8][9][11] Although in vitro studies indicate CBD may interact with different biological targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other neurotransmitter receptors,[9][12]as of 2018 the mechanism of action for its biological effects has not been determined.[8][9]
In this edition of Cannabis Conversations, Project CBD Director, Martin A. Lee, discusses the benefits of CBD, the "entourage effect" and the microbiome with Dr. Ethan Russo. A neurologist, scientist, and widely published author, Dr. Russo is currently the director of research and development at the International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute in Prague (www.icci.science).
Buying online is less reliable still because there’s no regulation or standardization. What you see on the label may not be what you are getting. A 2017 study in JAMA found that of the 84 CBD products researchers bought online, 43% had more CBD than indicated, while 26% had less, and some had unexpected THC. “There’s a 75% chance of getting a product where the CBD is mislabeled,” says Marcu, one of the study’s coauthors.
The leaves, stems, flower buds and extracts from the marijuana plant can be eaten, brewed in a tea or put into a tincture. It can also be vaporized using an e-cigarette pen. Yale University researchers surveyed 3,847 Connecticut high school students about this practice in a 2015 study that was published in the journal Pediatrics. The study found nearly one in five e-cigarette users also have vaporize cannabis or byproducts like hash oil using the device. 

In 2015, The Hebrew University of Israel published a study that documented the potency of single-molecule CBD extract versus the potency of whole-plant CBD-rich extract. It found that extract taken from whole plant CBD-rich cannabis is therapeutically superior to single-molecule extract. The scientists behind this study noticed that science had been utilizing pure, single-molecule CBD, which resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. This means that CBD’s efficacy plummets at very high and very low doses.


According to DSM-V criteria, 9% of those who are exposed to cannabis develop cannabis use disorder, compared to 20% for cocaine, 23% for alcohol and 68% for nicotine. Cannabis abuse disorder in the DSM-V involves a combination of DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence, plus the addition of craving, minus the criterion related to legal troubles.[117]
So the $20 joining fee is not too bad. But where they make their money is from the Builder Packs that you have to purchase if you want to make commissions. These packs start at around $60 and go up to $600 at the time of this review. For some people start up costs are a deal breaker. Not everyone understands that any business requires an initial investment. But companies like Wealthy Affiliate provide you with a free option to get started with your business. So it may be something to consider.
Namaste, a Canadian cannabis company, also has relationships with Cannbit. They have invested in Cannbit as a cultivator and supplier of raw cannabis for their global ventures, some of which include coffee shop chains in Israel. Namaste has a 10% stake in Cannabit, and they intend to continue facilitating the import of MMJ from Israel to Canada as well as other jurisdictions once approved.

Public health also takes various actions to limit the health disparities between different areas of the country and, in some cases, the continent or world. One issue is the access of individuals and communities to health care in terms of financial, geographical or socio-cultural constraints to accessing and using services.[54] Applications of the public health system include the areas of maternal and child health, health services administration, emergency response, and prevention and control of infectious and chronic diseases.


The results of the three large European cohort studies have been confirmed in two smaller New Zealand birth cohorts. Arsenault and colleagues (2002) reported a prospective study of the relationship between adolescent cannabis use and psychosis in a New Zealand birth cohort (n = 759). They found a relationship between cannabis use by age 15 and an increased risk of psychotic symptoms by age 26. The relationship did not change when they controlled for other drug use, but it was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for psychotic symptoms at age 11. The latter probably reflected the small number of psychotic disorders observed in the sample. Fergusson et al. (2003) found a relationship between cannabis dependence at age 18 and later symptoms that included those in the psychotic spectrum reported at age 21 in the Christchurch birth cohort. Fergusson and colleagues adjusted for a large number of potential confounding variables, including self-reported psychotic symptoms at the previous assessment, other drug use and other psychiatric disorders, but whether the association represents a link between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms specifically, or more general psychiatric morbidity, remains unclear.
Cannabis sativa is an annual wind-pollinated plant, normally dioecious and dimorphic, although sometimes monoecious (mostly in several modern European fiber cultivars). Figure 2 presents the basic morphology of the species. Some special hybrids, obtained by pollinating females of dioecious lines with pollen from monoecious plants, are predominantly female (so-called “all-female,” these generally also produce some hermaphrodites and occasional males). All-female lines are productive for some purposes (e.g. they are very uniform, and with very few males to take up space they can produce considerable grain), but the hybrid seed is expensive to produce. Staminate or “male” plants tend to be 10%–15% taller and are less robust than the pistillate or “female” (note the comparatively frail male in Fig. 3). So prolific is pollen production that an isolation distance of about 5 km is usually recommended for generating pure-bred foundation seed. A “perigonal bract” subtends each female flower, and grows to envelop the fruit. While small, secretory, resin-producing glands occur on the epidermis of most of the above-ground parts of the plant, the glands are very dense and productive on the perigonal bracts, which are accordingly of central interest in marijuana varieties. The root is a laterally branched taproot, generally 30–60 cm deep, up to 2.5 m in loose soils, very near the surface and more branched in wet soils. Extensive root systems are key to the ability of hemp crops to exploit deep supplies of nutrients and water. The stems are erect, furrowed, and usually branched, with a woody interior, and may be hollow in the internodes. Although the stem is often woody, the species is frequently referred to as a herb or forb. Plants vary enormously in height depending on genetic constitution and environment (Fig. 4), but are typically 1–5 m (heights of 12 m or more in cultivation have been claimed).
Fig. 2. Cannabis sativa. This superb composite plate by artist Elmer Smith, often reproduced at a very small scale and without explanation in marijuana books, is the best scientific illustration of the hemp plant ever prepared. 1. Flowering branch of male plant. 2. Flowering branch of female plant. 3. Seedling. 4. Leaflet. 5. Cluster of male flowers. 6. Female flower, enclosed by perigonal bract. 7. Mature fruit enclosed in perigonal bract. 8. Seed (achene), showing wide face. 9. Seed, showing narrow face. 10. Stalked secretory gland. 11. Top of sessile secretory gland. 12. Long section of cystolith hair (note calcium carbonate concretion at base). Reproduced with the permission of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names,[a] is a psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant used for medical or recreational purposes.[16][17][18] The main psychoactive part of cannabis is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of 483 known compounds in the plant,[19] including at least 65 other cannabinoids.[20] Cannabis can be used by smoking, vaporizing, within food, or as an extract.[21]
HempWorx CBD is an interesting brand that has no issue with transparency in terms of how they operate as a business, and where they source their raw hemp plant material from. Also, one of the main things that stands out to me as that they’re one of the only companies I know of that offers specific dosing guidelines for a range of serious medical conditions. This is a bit odd, however, as they also make it clear that CBD is not approved by the FDA as a medicine, and thus none of their products are designed to “treat, cure, or prevent” any disease.
Then came World War II. The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor shut off foreign supplies of "manila hemp" fiber from the Philippines. The USDA produced a film called "Hemp For Victory" to encourage U.S. farmers to grow hemp for the war effort. The U.S. government formed the War Hemp Industries Department and subsidized hemp cultivation. During the war, U.S. farmers grew about a million acres of hemp across the Midwest as part of that program.
Along with its better-known counterpart, THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the chemical that produces the marijuana high), CBD is one of more than 400 compounds found in the oils of cannabis plant species, which include marijuana and hemp. Unlike THC, CBD will not make you high. That said, this doesn’t mean CBD is not at all psychoactive, as many assert, says Jahan Marcu, Ph.D., director of experimental pharmacology and behavior at the International Research Center on Cannabis and Mental Health in New York City: “CBD does change cognition. It affects mood, which is why people take it for anxiety. And some find that it makes them more alert.”
Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and marijuana — has become unclear to the many and some even consider the three plants to be one in the same. Because of this, the three terms are often used interchangeably, which has created difficulties when understanding the usage and benefits of Hemp vs Marijuana and Cannabis in general. 

In Japan, hemp was historically used as paper and a fiber crop. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). Many Kimono designs portray hemp, or asa (Japanese: 麻), as a beautiful plant. In 1948, marijuana was restricted as a narcotic drug. The ban on marijuana imposed by the United States authorities was alien to Japanese culture, as the drug had never been widely used in Japan before. Though these laws against marijuana are some of the world's strictest, allowing five years imprisonment for possession of the drug, they exempt hemp growers, whose crop is used to make robes for Buddhist monks and loincloths for Sumo wrestlers. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question.[150]

Hemp paper is useful for specialty applications such as currency and cigarette papers where strength is needed. The bast fiber is of greatest interest to the pulp and paper industry because of its superior strength properties compared to wood. However, the short, bulky fibers found in the inner part of the plant (hurds) can also be used to make cheaper grades of paper, apparently without greatly affecting quality of the printing surface. Hemp is not competitive for newsprint, books, writing papers, and general paper (grocery bags, coffee cups, napkins), although there is a specialty or novelty market for those specifically wishing to support the hemp industry by purchasing hemp writing or printing paper despite the premium price (Fig. 17).
CBD edibles are foods and beverages infused with CBD for oral consumption, and they are immensely popular thanks to their delicious taste as well as their soothing effects. From CBD fruit rolls to CBD-infused coffee, CBD edibles include a wide array of shapes, dosages, and mouthwatering flavors. CBD edibles offer an easy and discreet way to never forget your daily dose of CBD. Besides their fun and fruity taste and appearance, Green Roads CBD Edibles offer all the benefits of CBD in a convenient 30-day supply so you’ll never run out whether you need a short-term fix or long-term relief. 

At sufficient doses (400-600 mg), CBD can alleviate situational anxiety, such as public speaking. Interestingly, cannabis cultivars, or strains, that are high in CBD and low in THC are better than other cultivars for alleviating depression. But when used over a long period of time, any kind of cannabis could make depression worse.  Although clinical trials in people haven’t yet been completed, there is very compelling “petri dish” evidence that CBD can reduce inflammation, for painful conditions such as Crohn’s disease, and fight some cancerous tumors. There is a massive amount of scientific research being done on CBD right now, and we are likely to see many medical breakthroughs in the next decade.
^ Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE, Kirillova GP, Kirisci L, Reynolds MD, Kreek MJ, Conway KP, Maher BS, Iacono WG, Bierut L, Neale MC, Clark DB, Ridenour TA (June 2012). "Common liability to addiction and "gateway hypothesis": theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective". Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Review). 123 Suppl 1: S3–17. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2011.12.018. PMC 3600369. PMID 22261179.
Hemp isn’t completely absent of psychoactive compounds, but that doesn’t mean it will get you high. Hemp plants simply don’t produce enough THC to have an intoxicating effect. CBD, though psychoactive, is a non-intoxicating cannabinoid and won’t produce any form of a euphoric high on its own. In other words, hemp has plenty of therapeutic potential, but you’ll have to look elsewhere if you want to get high.
Personal health also depends partially on the social structure of a person's life. The maintenance of strong social relationships, volunteering, and other social activities have been linked to positive mental health and also increased longevity. One American study among seniors over age 70, found that frequent volunteering was associated with reduced risk of dying compared with older persons who did not volunteer, regardless of physical health status.[58] Another study from Singapore reported that volunteering retirees had significantly better cognitive performance scores, fewer depressive symptoms, and better mental well-being and life satisfaction than non-volunteering retirees.[59]
Hemp, grown under license mostly in Canada, is the most publicized “new” crop in North America. Until very recently the prohibition against drug forms of the plant prevented consideration of cultivation of fiber and oilseed cultivars in Canada. However, in the last 10 years three key developments occurred: (1) much-publicized recent advances in the legal cultivation of hemp in western Europe, especially for new value-added products; (2) enterprising farmers and farm groups became convinced of the agricultural potential of hemp in Canada, and obtained permits to conduct experimental cultivation; and (3) lobby groups convinced the government of Canada that narcotic forms of the hemp plant are distinct and distinguishable from fiber and oilseed forms. In March 1998, new regulations (under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act) were provided to allow the commercial development of a hemp industry in Canada, and since then more than a thousand licenses have been issued. Hectares licensed for cultivation for 1998–2001 were respectively, 2,500, 14,200, 5,487, and 1,355, the decreasing trend due to a glut of seed produced in 1999 and pessimism over new potential regulations barring exports to the US. Information on the commercial potential of hemp in Canada is in Blade (1998), Marcus (1998), and Pinfold Consulting (1998). In the US, a substantial trade in hemp products has developed, based on imports of hemp fiber, grain, and oil. The American agricultural community has observed this, and has had success at the state level in persuading legislators of the advisability of experimental hemp cultivation as a means of evaluating the wisdom of re-establishing American hemp production. However, because of opposition by the federal government, to date there has only been a small experimental plot in Hawaii. Information on the commercial potential of hemp in the US is presented in the following.

The relationship between THC and CBD is complex, but in short, CBD appears to minimize some of THC’s undesirable effects, such as paranoia, heart palpitations, and impaired thinking. Compared with THC in isolation, or its synthetic cousins such as Marinol, the combination of THC and CBD has much greater therapeutic value to patients. This phenomenon of cannabis-derived molecules working better together than they do in isolation is commonly referred to as the entourage effect. 
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