Karl W. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species, but not C. ruderalis. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, Central Asia, and Turkey to C. sativa. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. indica. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. sativa, C. indica, and (tentatively) C. ruderalis. In his doctoral dissertation published the same year, Hillig stated that principal components analysis of phenotypic (morphological) traits failed to differentiate the putative species, but that canonical variates analysis resulted in a high degree of discrimination of the putative species and infraspecific taxa. Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. sativa and C. indica as separate species. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. ruderalis as a separate species from C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.
Preliminary research indicates that cannabidiol may reduce adverse effects of THC, particularly those causing intoxication and sedation, but only at high doses. Safety studies of cannabidiol showed it is well-tolerated, but may cause tiredness, diarrhea, or changes in appetite as common adverse effects. Epidiolex documentation lists sleepiness, insomnia and poor quality sleep, decreased appetite, diarrhea, and fatigue.
“The most common symptoms I treat with CBD are inflammatory conditions and it is also often used for pain,” Dr. Amin says. “Dosing is patient dependent. I always start low and go slowly. I have found that 15mg of CBD is a good starting dose for most patients. You have to be careful after that and titrate each patient individually due to the chance of potentially increasing anxiety and depressive symptoms. I have found the most convenient way for most of my patients to consume CBD is through tincture form. But capsules and edibles are also great ways to consume CBD on a daily basis.”
The isolation of CBD was recorded back on 1940 by two independent investigation groups. The group of Adams and colleges successfully isolated it from cannabis 1. At the same time Jacob and Todd successfully isolated the cannabidiol from indian hemp resin 2. But was not until 1963 that Mechoulam and Shyo discovered the chemical structure of the CBD and enlightening the comprehension of the nature of the cannabinoids 3. At the next year 1964 Gaoni and Mechoulam finally elucidated the chemical structure of the main psychoactive compound of cannabis the THC matching the starting point of the modern pharmacology of cannabis 4.
While distributors have proclaimed HempWorx’s cannabis products as “legal in all 50 states,” and Josh Zwagil has said that it’s “100 percent legal” to ship them across state lines (more on this in the next section), the contract advises that distributors nevertheless “consult with an attorney regarding the extent of their personal legal liability with respect to their independent businesses,” noting that “laws differ according to jurisdiction.”
Recreational cannabis use centers around one chemical: the psychoactive cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Consuming this chemical induces euphoric and stimulating sensations commonly referred to as a “high.” For most marijuana users, these sensations are pleasurable and enjoyable. For some, however, THC can induce feelings of anxiety and paranoia, especially in large doses.
These days I’m a believer. It’s difficult to ignore the fact that Epidiolex—the CBD-based epilepsy medication—was approved by the F.D.A last year. Or that athletes are abandoning NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen) for greener alternatives. Then there are Alfie Dingley and Billie Caldwell in the UK: Their cases involving rare forms of epilepsy have prompted UK home secretary Sajid Javid to say that specialists will soon be able to prescribe cannabis-based medication. Beyond that, nearly 7% of Americans are already using CBD—and given the population, that’s a staggering number.
Thermal Insulation. Thermal insulation products (Fig. 20, 21) are the third most important sector of the hemp industry of the EU. These are in very high demand because of the alarmingly high costs of heating fuels, ecological concerns about conservation of non-renewable resources, and political-strategic concerns about dependence on current sources of oil. This is a market that is growing very fast, and hemp insulation products are increasing in popularity. In Europe, it has been predicted that tens of thousands of tonnes will be sold by 2005, shared between hemp and flax (Karus et al. 2000).
Although CBD oils aren’t regulated by the FDA, purchasing products stateside from one of the nine states where recreational and medical cannabis use is legal will likely result in a higher-quality product than buying one made with hemp-derived CBD oil imported from abroad, says Martin Lee, director of Project CBD, a nonprofit that promotes medical research into CBD.
Given its name, you might assume THCV shares psychoactive powers with its potent counterpart, THC. In reality, this cannabinoid is more like a cross between CBD and THC. From the former, it takes its modulating powers. Acting like THC “lite,” THCV like CBD can dampen the effects of a strong high. Yet at higher doses, THCV kicks into a psychoactive stimulant in its own right.
Cannabis is a flowering plant used for both recreational and medicinal purposes. Three main types (species, subspecies, or varieties) of the cannabis genus have been recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol is the main psychoactive/addictive ingredient of cannabis; the effects of this compound are most commonly associated with binding to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (Hoffman & Lupica, 2013).
Cannabis is a generic term used to denote the several psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa. The major psychoactive consituent in cannabis is ∆-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compounds which are structurally similar to THC are referred to as cannabinoids. In addition, a number of recently identified compounds that differ structurally from cannabinoids nevertheless share many of their pharmacological properties. The Mexican term 'marijuana' is frequently used in referring to cannabis leaves or other crude plant material in many countries. The unpollinated female plants are called hashish. Cannabis oil (hashish oil) is a concentrate of cannabinoids obtained by solvent extraction of the crude plant material or of the resin.
Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel. The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. The inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. When oxidized (often erroneously referred to as "drying"), hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as a moisturizing agent, for cooking, and in plastics. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well. A survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed.
Hi, I've just purchased the 750mg oil drops and when I receive it I am hoping it will help my husband's MS pain and my athritis and Trigeminal Neuralgia pain. Both have anxiety so we should become calm together. We hail from Hervey Bay Queensland, Australia. This is our last hope fr pain relief without opiods which we are unable o access due to new government restrictions. Thank you and fingers crossed.
This guide is an introduction to anyone looking to inform themselves about the reality of cannabis. It covers basic information about the marijuana plant, cannabis preparations, and the crucial elements of plant anatomy and science. This guide to marijuana also gives an overview of the most popular medical and recreational uses of cannabis. It offers a survey of the most important medical cannabis research while highlighting emerging trends in the legal cannabis market. The guide also introduces those new to cannabis to the many ways to consume marijuana, and much more.
Folks. This article has nothing whatsoever to do wiht legalization of marijuana. Why do you keep commenting on legalizing pot, medical or otherwise? This article is about hemp. TOTALLY different. As an agricultural product it is very adaptable, forgiving and has a multitude of uses. Please stay on topic and help to promote the valuable product of HEMP. South Carolina has made it legal to grow and the rest of the country would benefit from following suit. Again, this has absolutely nothing to do with Pot!!!!!
One claim is that Hearst believed[dubious – discuss] that his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator which he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspaper. Historical research indicates this fear was unfounded because improvements of the decorticators in the 1930s – machines that separated the fibers from the hemp stem – could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Further, decorticators did not perform satisfactorily in commercial production.
The most widespread claim for environmental friendliness of hemp is that it has the potential to save trees that otherwise would be harvested for production of lumber and pulp. Earlier, the limitations of hemp as a pulp substitute were examined. With respect to wood products, several factors appear to favor increased use of wood substitutes, especially agricultural fibers such as hemp. Deforestation, particularly the destruction of old growth forests, and the world’s decreasing supply of wild timber resources are today major ecological concerns. Agroforestry using tree species is one useful response, but nevertheless sacrifices wild lands and biodiversity, and is less preferable than sustainable wildland forestry. The use of agricultural residues (e.g. straw bales in house construction) is an especially environmentally friendly solution to sparing trees, but material limitations restrict use. Another chief advantage of several annual fiber crops over forestry crops is relative productivity, annual fiber crops sometimes producing of the order of four times as much per unit of land. Still another important advantage is the precise control over production quantities and schedule that is possible with annual crops. In many parts of the world, tree crops are simply not a viable alternative. “By the turn of the century 3 billion people may live in areas where wood is cut faster than it grows or where fuelwood is extremely scarce” (World Commission on Environment and Development 1987). “Since mid-century, lumber use has tripled, paper use has increased six-fold, and firewood use has soared as Third World populations have multiplied” (Brown et al. 1998). Insofar as hemp reduces the need to harvest trees for building materials or other products, its use as a wood substitute will tend to contribute to preserving biodiversity. Hemp may also enhance forestry management by responding to short-term fiber demand while trees reach their ideal maturation. In developing countries where fuelwood is becoming increasingly scarce and food security is a concern, the introduction of a dual-purpose crop such as hemp to meet food, shelter, and fuel needs may contribute significantly to preserving biodiversity.
Known for invigorating and uplifting sensations, with a high focus in the mind rather than the body, sativas are extremely popular as daytime-use strains and for social occasions. Sativas are also widely associated with the cerebral and creativity-enhancing effects of weed. Hence, they are lauded by artists and other inventive people who use cannabis.
The genus Cannabis was formerly placed in the nettle (Urticaceae) or mulberry (Moraceae) family, and later, along with the genus Humulus (hops), in a separate family, the hemp family (Cannabaceae sensu stricto). Recent phylogenetic studies based on cpDNA restriction site analysis and gene sequencing strongly suggest that the Cannabaceae sensu stricto arose from within the former family Celtidaceae, and that the two families should be merged to form a single monophyletic family, the Cannabaceae sensu lato.
Subsequent studies were carried out in different countries, which confirmed the results found in the Zammit et al. (2002) study, showing that those clinically dependent on cannabis by 18 years of age had an increased risk of later developing psychotic symptoms (Fergusson, Horwood, & Swain-Campbell, 2003). Cannabis users were also more likely to develop schizophreniform disorder (Arseneault et al., 2002), and the dose–response relationship found in the first study was confirmed (Henquet et al., 2005).
So true. Hearst and Rockefeller did not want Hemp or any form of Cannabis interfering with their lucrative paper, pharmaceutical and oil industries. Hemp is versatile and renewable. It can be used for food, medicine, fuel, paper, clothing, plastic, building materials; just about anything paper and oil is used for. These bastard wealthy people have done a disservice to all people and for the sake of lining their already copiously rich pockets. They and those like them are criminals of the worst order
Schizophrenia. Research on the use of cannabidiol for psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia is mixed. Some early research suggests that taking cannabidiol four times daily for 4 weeks improves psychotic symptoms and might be as effective as the antipsychotic medication amisulpride. But other early research suggests that taking cannabidiol for 14 days is not beneficial. The mixed results might be related to the cannabidiol dose used and duration of treatment.
There are hundreds of compounds in marijuana, but scientists believe the one responsible for the drugs' psychoactive effects is tetrahydrocannbinol, or THC. THC binds to cannabinoid receptors throughout the body, and marijuana's "high" comes from THC's binding to brain regions responsible for pleasure, time perception and pain, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
I won't spew hate because the products are good, but the company is lacking serious communication skills. I got tired of waiting for packing labels they repeatedly sent that I never got and them re-denying them later, made me just go ahead pay for the last package and discontinue my affiliation with them. I hope they are really proud of the bad impression they left on me. I don't want to give them that one star either.
The focus of public health interventions is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behavior, communities, and (in aspects relevant to human health) environments. Its aim is to prevent health problems from happening or re-occurring by implementing educational programs, developing policies, administering services and conducting research. In many cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak. Vaccination programs and distribution of condoms to prevent the spread of communicable diseases are examples of common preventive public health measures, as are educational campaigns to promote vaccination and the use of condoms (including overcoming resistance to such).
Cannabis is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. The leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. The first pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, the number gradually increasing up to a maximum of about thirteen leaflets per leaf (usually seven or nine), depending on variety and growing conditions. At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. The lower leaf pairs usually occur in an opposite leaf arrangement and the upper leaf pairs in an alternate arrangement on the main stem of a mature plant.